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Pisa, Palazzo La Sapienza
Pisa, Palazzo La Sapienza


In 1805, Great Britain, forming an alliance with Austria, Prussia and Russia, organizes a new military campaign against Napoleon. Despite a dramatic naval defeat off Trafalgar, again due to Sir Horatio Nelson, who had earlier defeated the French fleet in Egypt, the coalition’s lifespan is short: exactly one year from his coronation, the emperor leads the French army to Austerlitz in an epic battle that, thanks to his extraordinary strategic skill, ends in clear defeat for the Russian and Austrian armies and the immediate surrender of the three great powers.
The Napoleonic empire thus launches toward its maximum level of expansion. In 1808 Napoleon re–enters the Iberian peninsula, which will nevertheless always remain a thorn in his side due to powerful internal rebel activity, while in 1809 it was the Papal State’s turn, after Pius VII refused to adhere to the embargo against England proclaimed by Napoleon.
In the same year, an alliance is also struck with the former Austrian enemy. After divorcing the beloved Joséphine, the marriage having remained childless, Napoleon in fact marries Marie Louise of Austria. In 1811, Napoléon François is born of this union and immediately proclaimed King of Rome.

But the apparent balance that has been achieved is destined to soon be compromised. In 1812, Napoleon, perceiving the vacillation of agreements with Russia, decides on an invasion that ends in the most disastrous of all retreats. The next spring, in 1813, the great European powers decide to take advantage of the French weakness and attack, defeating Napoleon in the Battle of Nations in Leipzig. After one year of resistance, on 6 April 1814 Napoleon finally abdicates and the next month he is taken into exile on the Island of Elba.

1808. The compilation of the cadastre of the province of Savona is launched, in particle form instead of by cultivation masses.

1809. The city of Savona receives Pius VII, prisoner of Napoleon after the annexation of the Pontifical State to the Empire.
Élisa Bonaparte Baciocchi becomes Grand Duchess of Tuscany.

1810. Napoleon reforms the University of Pisa and institutes the Scuola Normale Superiore.

1811. Ajaccio becomes the capital of Corsica, formerly in Bastia.

1814. Élisa Bonaparte Baciocchi leaves Lucca.