Further, Thomas was encouraged like his other brothers to expand his holdings outside of Savoy.. Many members share its URL https://www.WikiTree.com/wiki/Savoie-275/10 via email, e.g. 116, pag 56, Peter der Zweite, Graf von Savoyen, Markgraf in Italien, doc.  One biographer wrote of Umberto that he was "forever rushing between chapel and brothel, confessional and steam bath. In 1233, when Thomas I of Savoy died, Thomas, being a younger son, inherited only the lordship of Piedmont, which he later raised to the status of a county. , Tommaso dal 1224 al 1227 fu canonico a Losanna, dal 1227 prevosto a Valence, ed infine canonico della cattedrale di Lione.  The Italian plans called for the Regio Esercito to reach the Rhone river valley, which the Italians came nowhere close to reaching, having penetrated only a few miles into France. Is there anything you can add or improve upon?  In northern Italy, which had been ruled by the Italian Social Republic, the charges of homosexuality made against Umberto had an impact on the voters, causing at least some conservatives to vote for the republic. Please contact the profile managers if you have any to add.  The crisis ended on 12 December 1944 with Umberto appointing a new government under Bonomi consisting of ministers from four parties, the most important of which were the Communists and the Christian Democrats. There are additional tools below. The profile is Open so you don't need to be on the Trusted List to edit or improve upon it. As the Allies freed more and more of Italy from the Salò regime, it became apparent that Victor Emmanuel was too tainted by his previous support of Fascism to have any further role. Umberto's custom of giving a fleur-de-lis made of precious stones to favoured young officials in his entourage was well known, and Umberto's lovers may have included Jean Marais; there was a former army lieutenant who published details of Umberto's advances to him. Tommaso II's edit page is the central location for adding information and correcting mistakes.  In a 1959 interview, Umberto told the Italian newspaper La Settimana Incom Illustrata that in 1922 his father had felt that appointing Benito Mussolini prime minister was a "justifiable risk".. As a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy was in preparation, Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in favour of Umberto in the hope that his exit might bolster the monarchy. The conservative, rural Mezzogiorno (southern Italy) region voted solidly for the monarchy while the more urbanised and industrialised Nord (northern Italy) voted equally firmly for a republic.  Croce advised him to make a break with his father by choosing his advisers from the democratic parties, and it was due to Croce's influence that Umberto appointed Falcone Lucifero, a socialist lawyer as Minister of the Royal House. Activity Feed  Churchill especially disapproved of the replacement of Badoglio with Bonomi, complaining that in his view that Umberto was being used by "a group of aged and hungry politicians trying to intrigue themselves into an undue share of power".  Umberto was described as a "sensuous" man who constantly craved sex, but he always felt very guilty and tormented afterward for violating the Catholic teaching that homosexuality and fornication are sins. In 1235, when Thomas left his ecclesiastical career, he sought to fully divide his lands from the County of Savoy. A sign of how unpopular the House of Savoy had become was that on 28 March 1944, when the Italian Communist leader Palmiro Togliatti returned to Italy after a long exile in the Soviet Union, did not press for an immediate proclamation of a republic.  The Catholic Church saw the continuation of the monarchy as the best way of keeping the Italian left out of power, and during the referendum campaign Catholic priests used their pulpits to warn that "all the pains of hell" were reserved for those who voted for a republic. 133, pag 68, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy: conti delle FIANDRE - JEANNE de Fland, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores, tomus XXI, Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis, annо 1244, pagina 619, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Scriptores, tomus V, Annales Blandinienses, anno 1244 pagina 31, Preuves de l'Histoire généalogique de la royale maison de Savoie, pagg 97 - 99, Peter der Zweite, Graf von Savoyen, Markgraf in Italien, doc.  Mack Smith cautioned that the friendly reception that Umberto received in Rome may have been due to him being a symbol of normalcy after the harsh German occupation as opposed to genuine affection for the prince. Trusted List If Tommaso II's DNA (not a family member's or descendant's DNA) has been tested for genealogical purposes the test or tests should be selected here. anno 1152, pag 841, Recueil des historiens des Gaules et de la France. By mutual agreement, Umberto and Mussolini always kept a distance. The two cities were seeking to force Thomas to acknowledge their independence from Savoy control.  The republicans charged that Umberto had done nothing to oppose Fascism with his major interest being his "glittering social life" in the high society of Rome and Turin, and that as a general knew that Italy was unready for war in 1940, but did not warn Mussolini against entering the war.. , In July 1243, Thomas and his brother Amadeus were ordered by Enzo of Sardinia to join in a siege of Vercelli, which had recently switched allegiances from the Empire to the Pope. , In hopes of influencing public opinion ahead of a referendum on the continuation of the monarchy, Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated in favour of Umberto on 9 May 1946 and left for Egypt. , Umberto was brought up in an authoritarian and militaristic household and expected to "show an exaggerated deference to his father"; both in private and public Umberto always had to get down on his knees and kiss his father's hand before being allowed to speak, even as an adult, and he was expected to stand to attention and salute whenever his father entered a room. Thomas' eldest son and heir Thomas III thought it to be an injustice and unsuccessfully claimed Savoy. VI, vol.  Through the Allied occupation, the Americans were far more supportive of Italian republicanism than the British with Churchill in particular believing the Italian monarchy was the only institution that was capable of preventing the Italian Communists from coming to power after the war. Tommaso II's profile, like all WikiTree profiles, has a section for public comments.  The possibility of losing the referendum also led to the monarchists to appeal to Victor Emmanuel to finally abdicate. Enter Savoie-275 and any other WikiTree ID to find the genealogical relationship between Tommaso II and the other person. Since you're not logged-in yet you can't make changes directly. III, Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora, vol. The "Wikid Shareable Tree" is another option.  By this point, the Badoglio government was so unpopular with the Italian people that Umberto was willing to accept the support of any party with a mass following, even the Communists.  Finally, Umberto made the controversial statement that Mussolini "at first had the full support of the nation" in bringing Italy into the war in June 1940, and Victor Emmanuel III had only signed the declarations of war because "there was no sign that the nation wanted it otherwise.  The historian and philosopher Benedetto Croce, a minister in the Badoglio cabinet, called Umberto "entirely insignificant" as he found the crown prince to be shallow, vain, superficial, and of low intelligence, and alluding to his homosexuality stated his private life was "tainted by scandal".  Adolf Hitler had other plans for Italy, and in response to the Italian armistice ordered Operation Achse on 8 September 1943 as the Germans turned against their Italian allies and occupied all of the parts of Italy not taken by the Allies. Especially helpful for some serious genetic genealogists is the inheritance pattern for Tommaso II's X chromosome, also shown here.  The king bitterly told General Noel Mason-MacFarlane that his son was unqualified to rule, and that handing power over to him was equivalent to letting the Communists come to power.  However, events had moved beyond Victor Emmanuel's ability to control. One of these two alternatives shall occur according to whether the names of the champions or the destroyers of Christian civilization emerge victorious from the urns". Ma a Montebruno, presso Pinerolo, gli astigiani, l'8 febbraio 1257, sconfissero i collegati e fecero prigioniero il conte Tommaso, che, per riavere la libertà dovette accettare una umiliante transazione, rinunciare ad ogni diritto sulla Città di Torino e su altre terre vicine. Thomas did act as regent for Boniface during the early years of his reign. Beatrice of Savoy did the same in her territories in Provence.  As Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin were willing to see Badoglio continue as prime minister, seeing him as a force for order, Umberto could had held out for him, but as part of his efforts to distance himself from Fascism, agreed to appoint Bonomi prime minister.  The diplomat and politician Count Carlo Sforza wrote in his diary that Umberto was completely unqualified to be king as he called the crown prince "a stupid young man who knew nothing of the real Italy" and "he had been as closely associated with fascism as his father.  Naples in 1944 was described as a city without cats or dogs which had all been eaten by the Neapolitans while much of the female population of Naples turned to prostitution in order to survive. Giovanni; Amedeo I Coda; Burcardo; Aimone; Oddone; Amedeo I (1047-1051) Oddone I (1051-1057) Figli.  In his last statement as king, Umberto refused to accept the republic, saying he was the victim of a coup d'état by his ministers and the referendum had been rigged against him. See the Relationship Finder Quick Links to check for relationships to US presidents, Mayflower passengers, Magna Carta Sureties and more. PM Churchill's 20-Great Grandfather. Index of Savoies  In the same interview, Umberto stated that his hope was to make Italy a democracy by executing "the vastest education programme Italy has ever seen" to eliminate illiteracy in Italy once and for all..  Umberto's principal arguments for retaining the monarchy were it was the best way to revive Italy as a great power; it was the only institution capable of holding Italy together by checking regional separatism; and it would uphold Catholicism against anti-clericalism. De Rosa was arrested and, under interrogation, claimed to be a member of the Second International who had fled Italy to avoid arrest for his political views.  Mussolini refused the request, and instead gave Umberto the responsibility of training the Italian forces scheduled to participate in Operation Hercules, the planned Axis invasion of Malta.  Speaking of behalf of the CLN in general, the Roman leadership of the CLN refused to join the cabinet as long it was headed by Badoglio, but indicated that Bonomi was an acceptable choice as prime minister for them. Now he is simply repeating his father's arguments.  An attempt by Umberto to have Churchill issue a public statement in favor of the monarchy led Macmillan to warn Umberto to try to be more politically neutral as regent. A few days later, on 19 April 1944, Umberto in an interview with The Times complained that the ACC was too liberal in giving Italians too much freedom as the commissioners "seemed to expect the Italian people to run before they could walk". Here are ways to connect and communicate with genealogists regarding Tommaso II's profile, especially if you're unable to collaborate directly using the WikiTree Tools above.  The monarchists favored putting off the referendum as long as possible, out of the hope that a return to normalcy would cause the Italians to take a more favorable view of their monarchy while the republicans wanted a referendum as soon as possible, hoping that wartime radicalization would work in their favor. This page shows all the Savoies on WikiTree. Alesia (Savoie) de Savoie, Margaret (Savoie) de Savoie, Konstanze (Savoy) Savoie, Tomasso (Savoie) de Savoie, Amadeus (Savoie) de Savoie, Louis (Savoie) de Savoie, Eléonore (Savoie) de Savoie and Alix (Savoy) Savoie. The disastrous Italian defeats at Stalingrad and El Alamein turned Umberto against the war and led him to conclude that Italy must sign an armistice before it was too late. Husband of Princess Isabella of Bavaria, Duchess of Genoa HM Margrethe II…  General Noel Mason-MacFarlane of the ACC visited the Quirinal Palace and convinced Umberto to accept Bonomi as prime minister under the grounds that the Crown needed to bring the CLN into the government, which required sacrificing Badoglio. Tommaso rimase vedovo nel 1244; sua moglie, Giovanna morì in quell'anno a Marquette: il 5 dicembre, secondo il Necrologio Sanctæ Waldetrudis e fu sepolta a Marquette, come confermano gli Annales Blandinienses, accanto al suo primo marito, Ferdinando. Tommaso I di Savoia e Margherita di Ginevra.Copper engraving.+ Passepartout.1 863. Quinto figlio di Tommaso I, conte di Savoia e di Margherita (o Beatrice) di Faucigny, figlia del conte Guglielmo I di Ginevra, e fratello di Amedeo IV, suo immediato predecessore nella linea dinastica in quanto primogenito maschio. You only need to join if you want to receive updates about him in your activity feeds or complete merges.  In response to objections from the CLN, Bonomi in practice accepted their claim that they represented the Italian people rather than the Crown while still swearing an oath of loyalty to Umberto as the Lieutenant General of the Realm when he took the prime minister's oath. The ancestor list uses the "ahnen" numbering system and presents seven generations in plain text. It can be used as a fill-in-the-blanks form at a family gathering. The dynamic tree expands to include an unlimited number of generations of parents and children. The profile page is the central place for organizing and viewing information and sources on an individual. In the 2 June 1946 referendum, a 52% majority voted to make Italy a republic. With his preceptor, Bonaldi, he went to Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. He was accorded the title Prince of Piedmont, which was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September. This was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September 1904.  When Mussolini decided to enter the war in June 1940, Umberto hinted to his father that he should use the royal veto to block the Italian declarations of war on Britain and France, but was ignored. In an effort to repair the monarchy's image after the fall of Benito Mussolini's regime, Victor Emmanuel transferred his powers to Umberto in 1944 while retaining the title of king. duca di Genova, "a.k.a Thomas Albert Victor of Savoy-Carignan", Superga, Città Metropolitana di Torino, Piemonte, Italy, Duke of Genoa; Prince of Savoy, Duke of Genoa. VI, 1999, pp. , Umberto was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia. This alternative tree view is packed with eight generations — up to 254 ancestors — along with birth and death dates and locations. ... Ancestor List for Tommaso II (Savoie) di Savoia The ancestor list uses the "ahnen" numbering system and presents seven generations in plain text. , Due fratelli di Tommaso e zii di Bonifacio, Pietro e Filippo, alla morte di Amedeo IV, chiedevano la divisione dei feudi, ma l'abilità di Tommaso riuscì a convincerli di accettare un appannaggio, che era stato loro concesso da Amedeo. Here are quick links to mapping websites: This tree & tools page is a supplement to it. , As a young man, the epicene Umberto was mostly noted for his pursuit of handsome young officers.  On 16 July 1943, the visiting papal assistant secretary of state told the American diplomats in Madrid that King Victor Emmanuel III and Prince Umberto were now hated by the Italian people even more than Mussolini.  By this point, the successive Italian defeats had so psychologically shattered Mussolini that he become close to being catatonic, staring into space for hours on end and saying the war would soon turn around for the Axis because it had to, leading even his closest admirers to become disillusioned and to begin looking for a new leader.  Sam Reber, an American official with the ACC, who had known Umberto before the war, met the prince in Naples in early 1944 and wrote he found him "greatly improved.  With the exceptions of Marshal Enrico Caviglia, General Calvi di Bergolo and General Antonio Sorice, the Italian generals simply abandoned their posts on the night of 8–9 September to try to flee south, which greatly facilitated the German take-over, as the Regio Esercito was left without leadership. Marriage: Unknown.  As Umberto continued as regent, he surprised many after his rocky start in the spring of 1944 with greater maturity and judgement than was expected. 1 He was the son of Tomaso I Conte di Savoia and Marguerite de Genève.  In 1943–44, the cost of living in southern Italy skyrocketed by 321% while it was estimated that people in Naples needed 2, 000 calories per day to survive while the average Neapolitan was doing well if they consumed 500 calories a day in 1943–44.  Over the opposition of the left-wing parties who wanted the "institutional question" resolved by the Constituent Assembly, De Gasperi announced that a referendum would be held to decide the "institutional question". If you have a question about Tommaso II and would like to seek help from the wider community — not just Tommaso II's friends and family — post it here. As such, he became heir apparent upon his birth, since the Italian throne was limited to male descendants.  De Gasperi and the other Christian Democratic leaders refused to take sides in the referendum, urging Christian Democratic voters to follow their consciences when it came time to vote. Thomas was born in Montmélian.  The Christian Democratic leader Alcide De Gasperi believed in 1944 that a popular vote would ensure a republic immediately, and sources from the Vatican suggested to him that only 25% of Italians favored continuing the monarchy.  For the first time in his life, Umberto criticised his father, saying the King of Italy should not be fleeing Rome and only reluctantly obeyed his father's orders to go south with him towards the Allied lines.  More damaging, Victor Emmanuel let it be known that he regretted handing over his powers to his son, and made clear that he felt that Umberto was unfit to succeed him as part of a bid to take back his lost powers. It's very valuable for advanced genealogy. He was the son of Thomas I of Savoy and Margaret of Geneva.. U.S. President [WASHINGTON] 's 16-Great Grandfather.  The Catholic Church was in favor of Umberto, who unlike his father, was a sincere Catholic who it was believed would keep the Communists out of power.  Her attempts were not sponsored by the king and Umberto was not (directly, at least) involved in them. V, Matthæi Parisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Chronica Majora, vol.  During the crisis of May 1915, when Victor Emmanuel III decided to break the terms of the Triple Alliance by declaring war on the Austrian empire, he found himself in a quandary as the Italian Parliament was against declaring war; several times, the king discussed abdication with the throne to pass to the Duke of Aosta instead of Umberto. One of his lovers, Enrico Montanari, remembered as a lieutenant in 1927 Turin that the prince gave him a silver cigarette lighter with the inscription reading "Dimmi di si!" However, the referendum passed, Italy was declared a republic, and Umberto lived out the rest of his life in exile in Cascais, on the Portuguese Riviera.  Umberto moved into the Quirinal Palace while at the Grand Hotel the Rome branch of the CLN met with the cabinet.  Umberto believed that the support from the Catholic Church would be decisive and that he would win the referendum by a narrow margin. Tommaso (Savoie) di Savoia about 1199 - 7 Feb 1259 Carbonierres, Savoy.  No representative of the Italian government attended his funeral.  At the beginning of the war, Umberto commanded Army Group West, made up of the First, Fourth and the Seventh Army (kept in reserve), which attacked French forces during the Italian invasion of France.  People in the Mezzogiorno loved their king, who on the campaign trail in Sicily showed an encyclopedic knowledge of Sicilian villages which greatly endeared him to the Sicilians.  Umberto rejected the advice that he should go to Naples, proclaim a rival government with the intention of starting a civil war in which the Army would presumably side with the House of Savoy, under the grounds that "My house united Italy. This is a great way to elicit information and photo sharing from family and old friends.  In private, Umberto said he found Togliatti "to be a very congenial companion whose intelligence he respected, but was afraid that he suited his conversation according to his company". V, vol.  Mack Smith wrote that Umberto was: "More attractive and outgoing than his father, he was even more a soldier at heart, and completely inexperienced as a politician...In personality less astute and intelligent than his father...less obstinate, he was far more open, affable and ready to learn". , In the first half of 1943, as the war continued to go badly for Italy, a number of Fascist officials upon learning that the Allies would never sign an armistice with Mussolini began to plot his overthrow with the support of the king. This included granting new charters and restructuring the governance in key cities such as Damme and Bruges.  Croce wrote: "The Prince of Piedmont for twenty-two years has never shown any sign of acting independently of his father. , Come conferma il monaco benedettino inglese, cronista della storia inglese, Matteo da Parigi, nel 1251, Tommaso sposò Beatrice Fieschi, nipote del papa, dopo che a Tommaso, secondo, Bruno Galland, nel suo Les papes d'Avignon et la Maison de Savoie : 1309-1409, era stata tolta la scomunica, mentre la scomunica ad Amedeo fu tolta nel 1252..  On the day before the referendum, 1 June 1946, Pope Pius XII in a sermon on St. Peter's Square that was widely seen as endorsing Umberto said: "What is the problem?  Umberto's interview caused some controversy as it was widely feared by the republican parties that a referendum would be rigged, especially in the south of Italy. The DNA Descendants page shows exactly who has inherited Tommaso II's testable DNA.  Not trusting his son, Victor Emmanuel had told Umberto nothing about his attempts to negotiate an armistice nor about his plans to flee Rome if the Germans should occupy it. 76, pag 34, Regesta comitum Sabaudiae, doc.  On 25 June 1944, the Bonomi government, which like the Badoglio government, ruled by royal degree as there was no parliament in Italy, had a royal degree issued in Umberto's name promising a Constituent Assembly for Italy after the war.  In the same interview, Umberto stated that he wanted post-war Italy to have a government "patterned on the British monarchy, and at the same time incorporating as much of America's political framework as possible". A quite new phase in Italy's liberation was opening". Compact Family Tree  Republican cartoonists mercilessly mocked Umberto's physical quirks, as the American historian Anthony Di Renzo wrote that he was: "Tall, stiff, and balding, he had smooth, clean-shaven blue cheeks, thin lips, and a weak chin. duca di Genova; Maria Bona di Savoia Genova von Bayern; Adalberto di Savoia Genova, duca di Bergamo; Princess Maria Adelaide de Savoie and 1 other; and Eugenio di Savoia, V. duca di Genova « less S > Savoie | D > di Savoia > Tommaso (Savoie) di Savoia, WIKITREE HOME | ABOUT | G2G FORUM | HELP | SEARCH. Victor Emmanuel III was anti-clerical, distrusting the Catholic Church, and wanted nothing to do with a peace attempt made through papal intermediaries. 329, pagg. After recognizing Henry as his suzerain, Thomas received an annual stipend of 500 marks. Altre lingue presto. The surnames page is a quick reference sheet that displays seven generations of Tommaso II's family names.  La città di Torino, che aveva aderito nel 1255 alla coalizione di comuni guidata da Asti, venne sottoposta sino al 1270 alla signoria di Asti, poi fino al 1276 a quella di Carlo d'Angiò ed infine a quella di Guglielmo VII del Monferrato, al quale verrà strappata (fu fatto prigioniero) da Tommaso III di Savoia.  However, Churchill during a visit to Rome in January 1945 called Umberto "a far more impressive figure than the politicians". , The contrast between Umberto, who was stiff and punctilious, and the more carefree and spontaneous Marie José was also much commented upon.  In June 1941, supported by his father, Umberto strongly lobbied to be given command of the Italian expeditionary force sent to the Soviet Union, saying that as a Catholic he fully supported Operation Barbarossa and wanted to do battle with the "godless communists".  The same month, Badoglio who was kept on as an adviser by Umberto made an offer to British and the Americans on behalf of the regent in September 1944 for Italy to be governed by a triumvirate consisting of himself, Bonomi and the former prime minister Vittorio Orlando which purged the prefects in the liberated areas who were "agents of Togliatti and Nenni" with Fascist-era civil servants. Tommaso II di Savoia: Madre : Beatrice Fieschi: Consorte : Guya di Borgogna : Figli : Filippo Pietro Tommaso Amedeo e Guglielmo : Religione : Cattolico: Contea di Savoia Branca comitale dei Savoia; Umberto I Biancamano (1000-1047) Figli. In 1239, Thomas traveled to England to pay homage to Henry III, King of England. Previté-Orton, "L'Italia nella seconda metà del XIII secolo", cap. Umberto was educated for a military career and in time became the commander-in-chief of the Northern Armies, and then the Southern ones. , Verso la fine del 1248, Tommaso ottenne dall'imperatore Federico II diversi feudi, tra cui i comuni di Ivrea e di Torino, cosa che ai torinesi non piacque affatto, e la nomina a Vicario imperiale per il Piemonte, come da vari documenti del Peter der Zweite, Graf von Savoyen, Markgraf in Italien. with a DNA match to ask if the other person recognizes a surname. While there, his niece, Eleanor of Provence, gave birth to Edward.  However, De Gasperi admitted that though the monarchy was a conservative institution, "it was difficult to answer the argument that the monarchy had done little to serve the interests of the country or people during the past thirty years".  The interview with The Times caused a storm of controversy in Italy with many Italians objecting to Umberto's claim that the responsibility for Italy entering the war rested with ordinary Italians and his apparent ignorance of the difficulties of holding public protests under the Fascist regime in 1940. Almost all of them were refused permission to board, making the struggle to get to the head of the line pointless.  The rumors were so widespread that Balbo had to visit the Quirinal Palace to meet King Victor Emmanuel III to deny them. 198–234. Profile managers are alerted to new comments via email, everyone on the Trusted List will see a notice about it in their activity feeds, and people who visit Tommaso II's profile in the future will see your comment. In 1935, Umberto supported the war against Ethiopia, which he called a "legitimate war" that even Giovanni Giolitti would have supported had he still been alive. , Most of the Committee of National Liberation (CLN) leaders operating underground in the north tended to lean in a republican direction, but were willing to accept Umberto temporarily out of the belief that his personality together with widespread rumors about his private life would ensure that he would not last long as either Lieutenant General or as king should his father abdicate.  Instead he was able to present the offensive as a victory.
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