[66], In 1783, the queen played a decisive role in the nomination of Charles Alexandre de Calonne, a close friend of the Polignacs, as Controller-General of Finances, and of the baron de Breteuil as the Minister of the Royal Household, making him perhaps the strongest and most conservative minister of the reign. Once Louis XVI finally did commit to a plan, its poor execution was the cause of its failure. Quando chiedevo del denaro me ne veniva dato il doppio del richiesto! Their enmity continuing, Marie Antoinette played a decisive role in defeating him in his aims to become the mayor of Paris in November 1791. [152] This leverage with the Assembly ended with the death of Mirabeau in April 1791, despite the attempt of several moderate leaders of the Revolution to contact the queen to establish some basis of cooperation with her. Variations in her name range from "Antonia Fernanda" and "Antonietta Ferdinanda". [83] Her mother again expressed concern for the safety of her daughter, and she began to use Austria's ambassador to France, comte de Mercy, to provide information on Marie Antoinette's safety and movements. In addition, she showed her determination to use force to crush the forthcoming revolution.[126][127]. The château's high price, almost 6 million livres, plus the substantial extra cost of redecorating, ensured that much less money was going towards repaying France's substantial debt. [55][56], In the middle of the queen's pregnancy two events occurred which had a profound impact on her later life: the return of her friend and lover, the Swedish diplomat Count Axel von Fersen[57] to Versailles for two years, and her brother's claim to the throne of Bavaria, contested by the Habsburg monarchy and Prussia. [47] In a letter to his brother Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany, Joseph II described them as "a couple of complete blunderers. [216], Long after her death, Marie Antoinette remains a major historical figure linked with conservatism, the Catholic Church, wealth, and fashion. [3] She spent her infancy in the city of her birth before moving to Madrid in 1733. [82], Around this time, pamphlets describing farcical sexual deviance including the Queen and her friends in the court were growing in popularity around the country. [108] By publicly showing her attention to the education and care of her children, the queen sought to improve the dissolute image she had acquired in 1785 from the "Diamond Necklace Affair", in which public opinion had falsely accused her of criminal participation in defrauding the jewelers Boehmer and Bassenge of the price of an expensive diamond necklace they had originally created for Madame du Barry. [140], Marie Antoinette continued to perform charitable functions and attend religious ceremonies, but dedicated most of her time to her children. Ha reputazione di persona frivola e superficiale, disposta a seguire ogni moda stravagante che giunga a Parigi. [167] This situation lasted until the spring of 1792. Senza alcuna ostentazione o bugie, ho fatto credere agli altri che ho più influenza di quanto in realtà ne abbia, perché se non gli avessi lasciato credere ciò, ne avrei avuta anche meno. The new Duc d'Orléans publicly protested the king's actions, and was subsequently exiled to his estate at Villers-Cotterêts. [133][134], In the days following the storming of the Bastille, for fear of assassination, and ordered by the king, the emigration of members of the high aristocracy began on 17 July with the departure of the comte d'Artois, the Condés, cousins of the king,[135] and the unpopular Polignacs. Pardon, Monsieur. [215], Marie-Antoinette is also known for her taste for fine things, and her commissions from famous craftsmen, such as Jean-Henri Riesener, suggest more about her enduring legacy as a woman of taste and patronage. Continuing deterioration of the financial situation despite cutbacks to the royal retinue and court expenses ultimately forced the king, the queen and the Minister of Finance, Calonne, at the urging of Vergennes, to call a session of the Assembly of Notables, after a hiatus of 160 years. Marie Antoinette did not attend the meeting and her absence resulted in accusations that the queen was trying to undermine its purpose. Non l'ho fatto apposta. [205][206], Marie Antoinette was guillotined at 12:15 p.m. on 16 October 1793. Amo l'imperatrice [la madre, Maria Teresa d'Asburgo] ma la temo anche a distanza; quando le scrivo non mi sento mai perfettamente a mio agio. Questa volta le donne parigine marciano su Versailles. She has been the subject of a number of books, films, and other media. It further deteriorated when Louis XVI tried to use a lit de justice on 11 November to impose legislation. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755 at the Hofburg Palace in Vienna, Austria. [71][72], Despite the general celebration over the birth of the Dauphin, Marie Antoinette's political influence, such as it was, did greatly benefit Austria. She was born in Seville during the signing of the Treaty of Seville which ended the Anglo-Spanish War. Pardon, Monsieur. Empress Maria Theresa died on 29 November 1780 in Vienna. In 1770 she was instrumental in ousting Étienne François, Duc de Choiseul, who had helped orchestrate the Franco-Austrian alliance and Marie Antoinette's marriage,[21] and in exiling his sister, the duchess de Gramont, one of Marie Antoinette's ladies-in-waiting. Some of her contemporaries, such as Thomas Jefferson, attributed to her the start of the French Revolution. Maria Cristina Ferdinanda of Savoy (21 November 1760 – 19 May 1768) died in infancy. [16][17] The couple's longtime failure to consummate the marriage plagued the reputations of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the next seven years. Emergency è una realtà che il mondo ci invidia (almeno questa). Maria Antonia non ha ancora 14 anni quando è promessa in sposa al nipote ed erede di Luigi XV. On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt. While some advocated her death, others proposed exchanging her for French prisoners of war or for a ransom from the Holy Roman Emperor. On the urging of the queen, Louis XVI dismissed Calonne on 8 April 1787. Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. The first meeting took place on 22 February 1787, nine days after the death of Vergennes on 13 February. There is no evidence to support the accusations. [Al fratello Giuseppe II] So che, specialmente in fatto di politica, ho pochissima influenza sul pensiero del re. With time, Mirabeau would support the queen, even more, going as far as to suggest that Louis XVI "adjourn" to Rouen or Compiègne. It was en vogue at the time for nobles to have recreations of small villages on their properties. • While from late 1787 up to his death in June 1789, Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis,[120] she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement, the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General. [91], On 27 April 1784, Beaumarchais's play The Marriage of Figaro premiered in Paris. Ciò, d'altra parte, non significa che se ne preoccupi davvero. [8][4][5][9] Despite the private tutoring she received, the results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. [77] The entire Polignac family benefited greatly from royal favor in titles and positions, but its sudden wealth and lavish lifestyle outraged most aristocratic families, who resented the Polignacs' dominance at court, and also fueled the increasing popular disapproval of Marie Antoinette, mostly in Paris. Nell'aprile del 1770, lascia per sempre l'Austria alla volta della Francia, dove diverrà Maria Antonietta. Silvio Berlusconi in piazza San Babila a Milano annuncia la nascita del Popolo della Libertà. Operas by Baldassare Galuppi were specially composed for her marriage to the Duke of Savoy. [200] In the hours left to her, she composed a letter to her sister-in-law, Madame Élisabeth, affirming her clear conscience, her Catholic faith, and her love and concern for her children. [222], In addition to her biological children, Marie Antoinette adopted four children: "Armand" Francois-Michel Gagné (c. 1771–1792), a poor orphan adopted in 1776; Jean Amilcar (c. 1781–1793), a Senegalese slave boy given to the queen as a present by Chevalier de Boufflers in 1787, but whom she instead had freed, baptized, adopted and placed in a pension; Ernestine Lambriquet (1778–1813), daughter of two servants at the palace, who was raised as the playmate of her daughter and whom she adopted after the death of her mother in 1788; and finally "Zoe" Jeanne Louise Victoire (1787-? [106] These suspicions of illegitimacy, along with the continued publication of the libelles and never-ending cavalcades of court intrigues, the actions of Joseph II in the Kettle War, the purchase of Saint-Cloud, and the Affair of the Diamond Necklace combined to turn popular opinion sharply against the queen, and the image of a licentious, spendthrift, empty-headed foreign queen was quickly taking root in the French psyche.[107]. Luigi XVI è conscio che ogni resistenza è inutile e lascia il palazzo alla testa del misero corteo della sua famiglia e dei suoi ministri. The moderate government collapsed in April 1792 to be replaced by a radical majority headed by the Girondins. This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead of appealing to all mothers present in the room; their reaction comforted her since these women were not otherwise sympathetic to her. Through her son Victor Emmanuel I and daughter Maria Teresa of Savoy, she is a double ancestress of Queen Anne of Romania as well as the pretending Duke of Parma, Emperor of Austria and reigning Grand Duke of Luxembourg. [Ultime parole prima di essere ghigliottinata, rivolte al boia, al quale aveva pestato un piede sul patibolo]. Mossi dalla paura di una controrivoluzione, gli animi dei parigini si infiammano. [189] Calls were also made to "retrain" the eight-year-old Louis XVII, to make him pliant to revolutionary ideas. Marie Antoinette's second pregnancy ended in a miscarriage early in July 1779, as confirmed by letters between the queen and her mother, although some historians believed that she may have experienced bleeding related to an irregular menstrual cycle, which she mistook for a lost pregnancy. Like Lafayette, Mirabeau was a liberal aristocrat. Count Axel von Fersen, after his return from America in June 1783, was accepted into the queen's private society. As the Third Estate declared itself a National Assembly and took the Tennis Court Oath, and as people either spread or believed rumors that the queen wished to bathe in their blood, Marie Antoinette went into mourning for her eldest son. This page was last edited on 15 November 2020, at 15:44. Finally, the queen was able to obtain her brother's support against Great Britain in the American Revolution and she neutralized French hostility to his alliance with Russia. Nello stesso mese, l'esercito rivoluzionario sconfigge i prussiani nella battaglia di Valmy. Biografie in PDF GRATIS She became increasingly unpopular among the people, however, with the French libelles accusing her of being profligate, promiscuous, harboring sympathies for France's perceived enemies—particularly her native Austria—and her children of being illegitimate. [2] She was the mother of the last three mainline Kings of Sardinia. [181], A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, among them the Princesse de Lamballe, were taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune. [123], The death of the Dauphin on 4 June, which deeply affected his parents, was virtually ignored by the French people,[124] who were instead preparing for the next meeting of the Estates-General and hoping for a resolution to the bread crisis. Ninety minutes later, the palace was invaded by the mob, who massacred the Swiss Guards. Marie Antoinette had profoundly disliked Rohan since the time he had been the French ambassador to Vienna when she was a child. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success. It was proposed that the cost could be covered by other sales, such as that of the château Trompette in Bordeaux. Died in childhood on the very day the Estates General convened. Il tasso di mortalità in Italia: 1946-2007 =9,...   Leggi di più, Biografieonline.it © 2003-2020 • La riproduzione dei testi è consentita citando la fonte secondo la Licenza Creative Commons As soon as it opened on 5 May 1789, the fracture between the democratic Third Estate (consisting of bourgeois and radical aristocrats) and the conservative nobility of the Second Estate widened, and Marie Antoinette knew that her rival, the Duc d'Orléans, who had given money and bread to the people during the winter, would be acclaimed by the crowd, much to her detriment. [190], On the night of 1 August, at 1:00 in the morning, Marie Antoinette was transferred from the Temple to an isolated cell in the Conciergerie as 'Prisoner n° 280'. [78] De Mercy wrote to the Empress: "It is almost unexampled that in so short a time, the royal favor should have brought such overwhelming advantages to a family".[79]. They described amorous encounters with a wide range of figures, from the Duchess de Polignac to Louis XV. [6] The marriage between Infante Philip and Louise Élisabeth occurred in 1739 and eventually her older sister Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela married the Dauphin in 1745. [73] During the Kettle War, in which her brother Joseph attempted to open the Scheldt River for naval passage, Marie Antoinette succeeded in obliging Vergennes to pay huge financial compensation to Austria. Rose Bertin created dresses for her, and hairstyles such as poufs, up to three feet (90 cm) high, and the panache (a spray of feather plumes). A significant achievement of Marie Antoinette in that period was the establishment of an alliance with Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, the most important lawmaker in the assembly. [81] In 2016, the Telegraph's Henry Samuel announced that researchers at France's Research Centre for the Conservation of Collections (CRCC), "using cutting-edge x-ray and different infrared scanners," had deciphered a letter from her that proved the affair. He met his sister and her husband on 18 April 1777 at the château de la Muette, and spoke frankly to his brother-in-law, curious as to why the royal marriage had not been consummated, arriving at the conclusion that no obstacle to the couple's conjugal relations existed save the queen's lack of interest and the king's unwillingness to exert himself. Two of her children had issue. [146][147] At the meeting, Mirabeau was much impressed by the queen, and remarked in a letter to Auguste Marie Raymond d'Arenberg, Comte de la Marck, that she was the only person the king had by him: La Reine est le seul homme que le Roi ait auprès de Lui. Papa Bonifacio VIII emana la bolla papale Unam Sanctam, che gli storici considerano una delle più estreme dichiarazioni della superiorità spirituale del Papa. [142] Despite her dislike of him, she played a decisive role in his return to the office. [11][4], Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician. [114], The queen attempted to fight back with propaganda portraying her as a caring mother, most notably in the painting by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun exhibited at the Royal Académie Salon de Paris in August 1787, showing her with her children. [109], On 1 May 1787, Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne, archbishop of Toulouse and one of the queen's political allies, was appointed by the king at her urging to replace Calonne, first as Controller-General of Finances and then as Prime Minister. Scrivere la storia della regina Maria Antonietta vuol dire riprendere un processo più che secolare, nel quale accusatori e difensori polemizzano con la maggior asprezza. She was the first queen of Sardinia in over thirty years since the death of Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine in 1741. [12] She was the mother of twelve children, three of whom died in infancy. [98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105] Fraser has also noted that the birthdate matches up perfectly with a known conjugal visit from the King. Se il popolo non l'ama, molti a corte la detestano, a causa dell'influenza che ha acquistato su Luigi XVI e del potere che gliene deriva. Viene scoperta la corrispondenza segreta di Luigi XVI, che fornisce la prova che il re ha tentato di soffocare la rivoluzione. All'inizio del regno di Luigi XVI, la regina viene informata che è interrotto l'approvvigionamento del pane, alimento base del sostentamento dei contadini. While Barnave's faction had dropped to 120 members, the new Girondin majority controlled the legislative assembly with 330 members. In 1774, she took under her patronage her former music teacher, the German opera composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, who remained in France until 1779. Alla corte di Parigi si mormora, infatti, che Maria Antonietta pensi solo a divertirsi, trascurando i propri doveri matrimoniali. [70], A second visit from Joseph II, which took place in July 1781 to reaffirm the Franco-Austrian alliance and also to see his sister, was tainted by false rumours[56] that Marie Antoinette was sending money to him from the French treasury. Because its capacity was exhausted the cemetery was closed the following year, on 25 March 1794. Lo sfarzoso stile di vita che Maria Antonietta vi conduce è molto lontano da quello del popolo francese. However, upon the death of Maria Teresa Rafaela in 1746[7] Ferdinand VI tried to engage Maria Antonia Fernandina to the Dauphin but the idea was snubbed by Louis XV as "incest". Preparations began for the trial of the king in a court of law. Leaving the tower she bumped her head against the lintel of a door, which prompted one of her guards to ask her if she was hurt, to which she answered, "No! "[49], Suggestions that Louis suffered from phimosis, which was relieved by circumcision, have been discredited. Her mother consented to the latter union but insisted on waiting for Maria Antonia Ferdinanda to reach a more mature age. Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape. Viene consacrata la Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano. Braccati e spaventati, il re e la regina si rifugiano nel palazzo abbandonato delle Tuileries. A Jonestown (Guyana), Jim Jones guida il Tempio del popolo ad un suicidio di massa. The first lady of the land, she brought a rigid etiquette from her native Spain to the court of Savoy. Maria Antonietta fugge dal Petit Trianon, che non rivedrà più. Publication of such calumnies continued to the end, climaxing at her trial with an accusation of incest with her son. At least once she received a visit by a Catholic priest. He began to institute more cutbacks at court while trying to restore the royal absolute power weakened by parliament. Louis XVI allowed Marie Antoinette to renovate it to suit her own tastes; soon rumors circulated that she had plastered the walls with gold and diamonds. That summer, the situation was compounded by multiple defeats of the French armies by the Austrians, in part because Marie Antoinette passed on military secrets to them. Vi resteranno, di fatto prigionieri, per 18 mesi, durante i quali la situazione peggiora di giorno in giorno. The match was seen as unpopular,[10] but the two remained close until her death. Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. On the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette, as did others who disliked her for more personal or petty reasons. On the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable, and well-liked by the common people. Throughout her imprisonment and up to her execution, Marie Antoinette could count on the sympathy of conservative factions and social-religious groups which had turned against the Revolution, and also on wealthy individuals ready to bribe republican officials to facilitate her escape;[187] These plots all failed. Si tratta di una falsità: Maria Antonietta è ben consapevole dell'importanza di mostrare interesse per i problemi del popolo. Dopo otto anni di matrimonio, e quando Luigi si è finalmente sottoposto ad un'operazione chirurgica, Maria Antonietta rimane incinta. One of the most important was Necker, the Prime Minister of Finances (Premier ministre des finances). A second daughter, her last child, Marie Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Madame Sophie, was born on 9 July 1786 and lived only eleven months until 19 June 1787. [207][208] Her last words are recorded as, "Pardonnez-moi, monsieur. The Portefeuille d’un talon rouge was one of the earliest, including the Queen and a variety of other nobles in a political statement decrying the immoral practices of the court. Il popolo di Parigi insorge di nuovo in ottobre. [202][203], Preparing for her execution, she had to change clothes in front of her guards. As time went on, these came to focus more and more on the Queen. Storia e vita di di Maria Antonietta d'Asburgo-Lorena, regina di Francia dal 1774 al 1791. Il re di Francia Luigi XVI viene ghigliottinato il 21 gennaio 1793. L'eroe nazionale svizzero Guglielmo Tell, secondo la leggenda medievale, colpisce con una freccia la mela tenuta da suo figlio sulla testa. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. [89][90] She sponsored the arts, in particular music, and also supported some scientific endeavours, encouraging and witnessing the first launch of a Montgolfière, a hot air balloon. [166] Moreover, the view that the unpopular queen was controlling the king further degraded the royal couple's standing with the people, which the Jacobins successfully exploited after their return from Varennes to advance their radical agenda to abolish the monarchy. [86][87] However, the hamlet was not an eccentricity of Marie Antoinette's. [149], The only time the royal couple returned to Paris in that period was on 14 July to attend the Fête de la Fédération, an official ceremony held at the Champ de Mars in commemoration of the fall of the Bastille one year earlier. [115][116] Around the same time, Jeanne de Valois-Saint-Rémy escaped from prison and fled to London, where she published damaging slander concerning her supposed amorous affair with the queen. Over the objections of Lafayette and his allies, the king was given a suspensive veto allowing him to veto any laws for a period of four years. Viene pubblicata la prima striscia a fumetti della fortunata serie di Calvin & Hobbes ideata dal disegnatore statunitense Bill Watterson. [125] Her role was decisive in urging the king to remain firm and not concede to popular demands for reforms. Maria Antonietta nacque alla Hofburg di Vienna il 2 novembre 1755, penultima dei sedici figli di Maria Teresa d'Austria e di Francesco Stefano di Lorena, imperatore del Sacro Romano Impero. She had played a decisive role in the disgrace of the reformer ministers of finance, Turgot (in 1776), and Jacques Necker (first dismissal in 1781). He sat by her in the cart, but she ignored him all the way to the scaffold. Antonio Rosmini comincia a scrivere l'opera "Delle cinque piaghe della Santa Chiesa", la cui pubblicazione gli costerà l'inizio di un lungo periodo di condanna. While imprisoned in the Tower of the Temple, Marie Antoinette, her children, and Élisabeth were insulted, some of the guards going as far as blowing smoke in the ex-queen's face. [201] Her will was part of the collection of papers of Robespierre found under his bed and were published by Edme-Bonaventure Courtois. Esce il cortometraggio animato "Steamboat Willie", il primo cartone sonoro completamente sincronizzato, diretto da Walt Disney e Ub Iwerks, nel quale appaiono per la seconda volta Topolino e Minnie. [2] As a wedding gift, the apartments of the new Duchess of Savoy at the Royal Palace of Turin were remodelled by the architect Benedetto Alfieri. Marie Antoinette, who had insisted on the arrest of the Cardinal, was dealt a heavy personal blow, as was the monarchy, and despite the fact that the guilty parties were tried and convicted, the affair proved to be extremely damaging to her reputation, which never recovered from it. She counted most on the support of her Austrian family. [133][136][137], The abolition of feudal privileges by the National Constituent Assembly on 4 August 1789 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (La Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen), drafted by Lafayette with the help of Thomas Jefferson and adopted on 26 August, paved the way to a Constitutional Monarchy (4 September 1791 – 21 September 1792). She sang during the family's evening gatherings, as she had a beautiful voice. As a liberal aristocrat, he did not want the fall of the monarchy but rather the establishment of a liberal one, similar to that of the United Kingdom, based on cooperation between the king and the people, as was to be defined in the Constitution of 1791. [165], As her correspondence shows, while Barnave was taking great political risks in the belief that the queen was his political ally and had managed, despite her unpopularity, to secure a moderate majority ready to work with her, Marie Antoinette was not considered sincere in her cooperation with the moderate leaders of the French Revolution, which ultimately ended any chance to establish a moderate government. Una volta esistevano gli dei falsi e bugiardi, oggi dopo due millenni di monoteismo abbiamo raggiunto la democrazia falsa e...   Leggi di più, Dottor Strada, da sempre l'abbiamo ammirato per quello che ha fatto e che fa. Adolf Hitler e il ministro degli esteri Italiano Galeazzo Ciano, si incontrano per discutere la disastrosa invasione della Grecia voluta da Benito Mussolini. [168][169], Marie Antoinette continued to hope that the military coalition of European kingdoms would succeed in crushing the Revolution. On 5 October, a crowd from Paris descended upon Versailles and forced the royal family to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, where they lived under a form of house arrest under the watch of Lafayette's Garde Nationale, while the Comte de Provence and his wife were allowed to reside in the Petit Luxembourg, where they remained until they went into exile on 20 June 1791. By the end of May, the Girondins had been chased from power. Ma è raro che veridicità e la politica dormano nello stesso letto, e là dove una figura è delineata con fini demagogici non si potrà aspettarsi molta giustizia dai facili servitori dell'opinione pubblica. [10] At the age of 10 she could not write correctly in German or in any language commonly used at court, such as French or Italian,[4] and conversations with her were stilted. Finally, on 8 August, Louis XVI announced his intention to bring back the Estates General, the traditional elected legislature of the country, which had not been convened since 1614.[119]. Il verdetto del processo a cui viene sottoposta è scontato: il 16 ottobre 1793 Maria Antonietta viene ghigliottinata. At the end of 1791, ignoring the danger she faced, the Princesse de Lamballe, who was in London, returned to the Tuileries. [112] Brienne was unable to improve the financial situation, and since he was the queen's ally, this failure adversely affected her political position. She wanted to be able to own her own property. [13], Following the Seven Years' War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, King Louis XV of France. In aprile l'Austria e la Prussia dichiarano guerra alla Francia. Having married by proxy in Madrid on 12 April 1750 she was married in person at Oulx on 31 May 1750[8] to Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, the eldest son of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia and his late wife Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg. [163][164], On 17 July 1791, with the support of Barnave and his friends, Lafayette's Garde Nationale opened fire on the crowd that had assembled on the Champ de Mars to sign a petition demanding the deposition of the king. Those on music, often dedicated to her, were the most read, though she also liked to read history. From marriage until her husband's accession she was styled as the Duchess of Savoy. [210] Her body was thrown into an unmarked grave in the Madeleine cemetery located close by in rue d'Anjou. [84], In 1783, the queen was busy with the creation of her "hamlet", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique, according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert. [221], In 2020, a silk shoe that belonged to her will be sold in an auction in the Palace of Versailles starting $11.800. Leopold's and Francis II's strong action on behalf of Marie Antoinette led to France's declaration of war on Austria on 20 April 1792. As these attacks increased, they were connected with the public's dislike of her association with the rival nation of Austria. Thomas Paine advocated exile to America. Louis XVI was executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. ", especially when he took the oath to protect the nation and to enforce the laws voted by the Constitutional Assembly. [212], For many revolutionary figures, Marie Antoinette was the symbol of what was wrong with the old regime in France. [citation needed]. [67], France's financial problems were the result of a combination of factors: several expensive wars; a large royal family whose expenditures were paid for by the state; and an unwillingness on the part of most members of the privileged classes, aristocracy, and clergy, to help defray the costs of the government out of their own pockets by relinquishing some of their financial privileges. )[162], After their return from Varennes and until the storming of the Tuileries on 10 August 1792, the queen, her family and entourage were held under tight surveillance by the Garde Nationale in the Tuileries, where the royal couple was guarded night and day.
2020 maria antonietta riassunto