Mas ainda havia muito o que aprender neste período em que ela teve que aprender os títulos e nomes da famílias mais importantes do reino, ela teve o auxílio do Abade de Bernis, de Voltaire e de alguns outros interessados em se beneficiar da posição de Marquesa de Pompadour e amante declarada do rei. Because she occupied an estate near this location she was permitted to follow the royal party at a distance. Devastado pela morte de sua segunda amante, Luis deixou a corte por um mês. [12] Toda a sociedade começou a comentar sobre as suspeitas de envenenamento. )[47] She was buried at the Couvent des Capucines [fr] in Paris. Madame de Pompadour. France suffered a defeat at the hands of the Prussians in the Battle of Rossbach in 1757, and eventually lost her American colonies to the British. I giorni che precedettero la morte di Madame de Pompadour, (15 Aprile 1764) non erano un granché anche per Madame du Deffand, che allora aveva 67 anni, alle prese con quello che considerava un tradimento della sua diletta nipote Madame de Lespinasse. After Rossbach, Madame de Pompadour is alleged to have comforted the king with the now-famous: "au reste, après nous, le Déluge" ("Besides, after us, the Deluge"). [2] These included the estate at Étiolles (28 km south of Paris), a wedding gift from her guardian, which was situated on the edge of the royal hunting ground of the forest of Sénart. The King sent a gift of venison to her. Additionally, Jeanne Antoinette created her own salon at Étiolles, which was attended by many of the cultural elite, among them were Crébillon fils, Montesquieu, the Cardinal de Bernis, and Voltaire. Enquanto François estava no fronte Louise-Madeleine passou a compartilhar da companhia de vários homens, na maioria nobres. [45] Louis nursed her through her illness. Introduite à la cour par relations, elle est remarquée par le roi Louis XV et devient sa maîtresse-en-titre, de 1745 à 1751. Hostile critics at the time generally tarred her as a malevolent political influence, but historians are more favorable, emphasizing her successes as a patron of the arts and a champion of French pride. [6], Charles Le Normam de Tournehem, um rico solteirão e mecenas, assumiu a guarda de Madame Poisson e sua família. [7] During this time her mother took her to a fortuneteller, Madame de Lebon, who predicted that the girl would one day reign over the heart of a King. Voltaire escreveu: "Estou muito triste com a morte de Madame de Pompadour - estava em dívida com ela e eu lamento-a além da gratidão. Acreditava que com os dotes naturais de sua filha, Jeanne-Antoinette poderia garantir uma vida melhor. A biopic came out three years later called Madame Pompadour directed by Herbert Wilcox, in which she was played by Dorothy Gish. Contra ou a favor da burguesa, agora enobrecida, Jeanne-Antoinette, foi apresentada à corte do dia 14 de dezembro, no salão Oiel-de-Boeuf. Influenciando politicamente as decisões reais, ela se tornou uma empreendedora, incentivando a fundação da fábrica de porcelanas de Sèvres. ("The marquise will not have good weather for her journey". The oil sketch of Pompadour's lost portrait by Boucher sits in the Starhemberg room at Waddesdon Manor built by Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, surrounded by Sèvres porcelain, another industry that she greatly influenced and innovated through personal dissemination across an international network of her own clientele. [10], Luis XV foi fiel à sua esposa por 10 anos tendo, nesses 10 anos, 10 filhos com a rainha, mas nem todos sobreviveram à primeira infância. Apesar de sua falta de educação formal e da falta de maneiras, François tinha um talento nato para resolver as situações mais delicadas - qualidades que logo o tornaram indispensável para seus empregadores. Pompadour protected the Physiocrates school (its leader was Quesnay, her own doctor) which paved the way for Adam Smith's theories. "[14]Muitos de seus inimigos ficaram, no entanto, aliviados. She also defended the Encyclopédie edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert against those, among them the Archbishop of Paris Christophe de Beaumont, who sought to have it suppressed. She was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to 1751, and remained influential as court favourite until her death. However, her mother died on Christmas Day of the same year, and did not live to see her daughter's achievement of becoming the undisputed royal mistress. Pompadour's announcement was most prominently declared through her commission from Jean Baptiste Pigalle, of a sculpture representing herself as Amitié [friendship], offering herself to a now lost pendant sculpture of Louis XV. [15] Ela foi enterrada no Convento das Capuchinhas em Paris. Tendo experimentado a vida com o açougueiro de baixa classe e depois experimentando o estilo de vida de alguns nobres que ela entretinha, Louise-Madeleine imaginava como sua pequena Reinette (rainhazinha), como ela chamava Jeanne-Antoinette, poderia se tornar, se trabalhasse duro e se colocasse nos lugares certos, a amante do rei. Apesar de terem deixado de ser amantes depois de 1750, eles continuaram amigos, e Luis XV foi dedicado a ela até sua morte em 1764 por tuberculose, na idade de quarenta e dois anos. Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise of Pompadour (/ˈpɒmpədʊər/, French: [pɔ̃paduʁ] (listen); 29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), commonly known as Madame de Pompadour, was a member of the French court. Quando Maria Leczynska se casou com Luis, estava ela com 22 anos e o rei com 15. Inicialmente, aos 11 anos de idade, Luís XV ficou noivo de uma infanta espanhola, mas a infanta acabou sendo mandada de volta para seu país. Love; Engraved print by Madame de Pompadour of a drawing by Boucher, after an engraved gemstone by Guay c. 1755. Todos sabiam que o Monarca não ficaria muito tempo sem uma amante. Her importance was such that she was approached in 1755 by Wenzel Anton, Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg, a prominent Austrian diplomat, asking her to intervene in the negotiations which led to the Treaty of Versailles. Isto até 1719 quando foi transferido para o front na guerra da Quádrupla Aliança. Within these circles she learned the fine art of conversation and developed the sharp wit for which she would later become known at Versailles. Britain's victories in the war had allowed it to surpass France as the leading colonial power — something which was commonly blamed on Pompadour. Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquesa de Pompadour (Paris, 29 de dezembro de 1721 — Palácio de Versalhes, 15 de abril de 1764), mais conhecida como Madame de Pompadour,[1] ou simplesmente apelidada como Reinette ("rainhazinha" em francês),[2] foi uma cortesã francesa e amante do Rei Luís XV da França considerada uma das figuras francesas mais emblemáticas do século XVIII. Lenonnant tinha uma casa de campo em Étiolles, uma casa em Paris, um salário impressionante e, o mais importante, tinha um círculo social que se relacionava realeza, um mundo onde as senhoras utilizavam os coches para admirarem os cavalheiros e os nobres caçavam raposas na floresta de Sénart. [4], Jeanne Antoinette Poisson was born on 29 December 1721 in Paris to François Poisson (1684–1754) and his wife Madeleine de La Motte (1699–1745). Hooper-Hamersley, The Hunt, 64 and Gere and Vaizey, Great Women Collectors, 46. Poisson foi acusado de pagar uma quantia enorme e declarou-se devedor do tesouro. Leda; engraved print by Madame de Pompadour of a drawing by Boucher, after an engraved gemstone by Guay c. 1755. [7], François conheceu os irmão Pâris quando atuava como almoxarife do setor de suprimentos do regimento de Due de Villars, depois disso François foi requisitado por sua integridade e ação imediata na organização dos suprimentos necessários quando ocorreu a peste na Provença. [28] In addition Pompadour admitted to having “the misfortune to be of a very cold temperament” and attempts to increase her libido with a diet of truffles, celery and vanilla were unsuccessful. [5] To be presented at court, she required a title. The king purchased the marquisate of Pompadour on 24 June and gave the estate, with title and coat-of-arms, to Jeanne Antoinette, making her a Marquise. Pompadour was a major patron of architecture and decorative arts, especially porcelain. Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour, duchesse de Menars, née le 29 décembre 1721 à Paris et morte le 15 avril 1764 à Versailles, est une dame de la bourgeoisie française devenue favorite de Louis XV, roi de France et de Navarre. Em março de 1741, com a idade de vinte anos, se casou com Monsieur Lenonnant. Trajando o obrigatório robe de cour negro, coberta de jóias, empoada e usando rouge, estava, a partir daquele momento, assumindo seu lugar no mundo de intrigas de Versalhes.[13]. She alone was able to captivate and amuse him, and would entertain Louis with elegant parties, afternoons of hunting, and journeying among their various real estate holdings. ", "Henri Matisse. In opposition to previous mistresses of Louis XV, Pompadour made herself invaluable to the King by becoming the only person whom Louis trusted and who could be counted on to tell him the truth. Havia chegado a hora e a vez de Madame d'Etioles.[12]. She was a patron of the philosophes of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire. [9], Considerado o homem mais belo do reino, provavelmente conheceu a ainda Madame d'Etioles em 1742, em um baile onde ele a notou - como não notar aquela que era considerada uma das mulheres mais belas de Paris? The personal portfolio of Madame de Pompadour was found in the Walters Art Museum manuscript room by art historian Susan Wager. [6], Oportunidades de ter lucros enormes sempre existiram para os responsáveis pelo suprimento do exército. [24] Pompadour had a copy of Les bijoux indiscrets in her library, which may explain why the crown did not pursue Diderot for such an indiscretion against the king.[25]. Before all of court and the royal family, Louis unmasked himself before Jeanne Antoinette, who was dressed as Diana the Huntress, in reference to their encounter in the forest of Sénart. Under these changed alliances, the European powers entered the Seven Years' War, which saw France, Austria, and Russia pitted against Britain and Prussia. Pompadour greatly influenced and stimulated innovation in what is known as the "Rococo" style in the fine and decorative arts: for example, through her patronage of the artists like Boucher and the constant refurnishing of the fifteen residences she held with Louis. [34] She championed French pride by constructing and later outright buying a porcelain factory at Sèvres in 1759, which became one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers in Europe, and which provided skilled jobs for the region. https://pt.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Madame_de_Pompadour&oldid=57835992, !Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé desde setembro de 2019, !Artigos que carecem de notas de rodapé sem indicação de tema, !Artigos em tradução sem indicação de tema, Atribuição-CompartilhaIgual 3.0 Não Adaptada (CC BY-SA 3.0) da Creative Commons. [12], Due to her involvement in Paris salons as well as her grace and beauty, Louis XV had heard the name of Jeanne Antoinette mentioned at court as early as 1742. As investigações para a obtenção do título recaíram sobre o Marquesado de Pompadour, uma propriedade no Limousino, cuja posse não era exata. A aristocracia se negava a acreditar que o rei fosse capaz de conspurcar os régios domínios da corte com uma simples burguesa. ポンパドゥール夫人(仏: Madame de Pompadour)ことポンパドゥール侯爵夫人ジャンヌ=アントワネット・ポワソン(仏: Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour, 1721年12月29日 - 1764年4月15日)は、ルイ15世の公妾。, 公妾たるその立場を利用してフランスの政治に強く干渉し、七年戦争ではオーストリア・ロシアの2人の女帝と組んでプロイセン・イギリスと対抗した。, 1721年パリ(現在のパリ2区界隈)の銀行家の娘として生まれる。平民という身分ながらブルジョワ階級の娘として、ポワシーで貴族の子女以上の教育を受けて育つ。成績は非常に優秀であった。1741年に徴税請負人のシャルル=ギヨーム・ル・ノルマン・デティオールと結婚。タンサン夫人[注 1]やジョフラン夫人[注 2]の超一流サロンに出入りするようになり、ヴォルテールやフォントネルら一流の文化人と知り合った。1744年にはその美貌がシャトールー公爵夫人の死に打ちひしがれていたルイ15世の目に留まった。彼女はポンパドゥール侯爵夫人の称号を与えられて夫と別居し、1745年9月14日正式に公妾として認められた。, フランス国王の公式の愛妾となったポンパドゥール夫人は、湯水のように金を使って、あちこちに邸宅を建てさせ(現大統領官邸エリゼ宮は彼女の邸宅のひとつ)、やがて政治に関心の薄いルイ15世に代わって権勢を振るうようになる。ポンパドゥール夫人に推されて1758年に外務大臣となったリベラル派のエティエンヌ・フランソワ・ド・ショワズールは戦争大臣なども兼務し、およそ10年にわたって事実上の宰相となった。フランスの重農学派フランソワ・ケネーも彼女の主治医であった。ベッドの上でフランスの政治を牛耳った「影の実力者」といえる。ポンパドゥール夫人の有名な言葉は「私の時代が来た」。, 1756年には、オーストリアのマリア・テレジア、ロシアのエリザヴェータと通じ反プロイセン包囲網を結成した。これは「3枚のペチコート作戦」と呼ばれる。特に宿敵オーストリアとの和解は外交革命と言われるほど画期的であり、和解のために後年マリー・アントワネットがフランス王室に嫁ぐこととなる。, ポンパドゥール夫人は美貌ばかりでなく学芸的な才能に恵まれ、サロンを開いてヴォルテールやディドロなどの啓蒙思想家と親交を結んだ。また芸術の熱心な愛好家、パトロンでもあり、様々な芸術家とも交流した。ポンパドゥール夫人の時代はフランスを中心に優雅なロココ様式の発達した時代になった。, 30歳を越えたころからルイ15世と寝室を共にすることはなくなったが、代わりに自分の息のかかった女性を紹介した。ルイ15世はポンパドゥール夫人が42歳でヴェルサイユで亡くなるまで寵愛し続けたという。鹿の園を建ててルイ15世好みの女を住まわせたというが、いわゆるハーレムのようなものではなかったという。, 現代では、ポンパドールは男性の前髪を高くしたスタイル(リーゼントと呼ぶのは間違いであり、これは側頭部から後頭部の髪形を指す)及び女性の髪形のひとつで、前髪を大きく膨らませて高い位置でまとめ、ピンやバレッタなどで留めたヘアスタイルである。襟足もあげて、後頭部でまとめるのが正式なスタイルといわれる。当時の貴族の女性はこぞってポンパドゥール夫人のファッションを真似、その髪型をポンパドゥールと呼ぶようになった。, Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, marquise de Pompadour, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=ポンパドゥール夫人&oldid=79594015, 『ポンパドゥール夫人‐ルイ15世を支配した女‐』 - 映像文学全集シリーズDVD発売元(. [8] Cinco anos depois, Louise-Madeleine trouxe sua filha para casa e começou a ministrar-lhe um currículo totalmente diferente do que as boas irmãs ofereciam. Madame de Pompadour persisted in her support of these policies, and when Cardinal de Bernis failed her, she brought Choiseul into office and supported and guided him in all his great plans: the Pacte de Famille, the suppression of the Jesuits and the Treaty of Paris (1763). O tio Tonmehem tratava os filhos de Louise-Madeleine como se fossem seus. Madame de Pompadour has been depicted on screen in film and television on many occasions, beginning in 1924 with Paulette Duval opposite Rudolph Valentino in Monsieur Beaucaire. ), At age 5 Jeanne Antoinette was sent to receive the finest quality education of the day in an Ursuline convent in Poissy, where she gained admiration for her wit and charm. [26], Around 1750 Madame de Pompadour's role as friend of the King became her solitary role, as she ceased her sexual relationship with the King. Para compensar Poisson, Le Blanc conseguiu que ele e o pai da noiva recebessem nomeações oficiais do regente Filipe II. Ela e sua mãe conversaram abertamente sobre como colocá-la no lugar apropriado para chamar a atenção do rei, para escalar "o Olimpo de Versalhes". Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild, an avid 19th-century collector in London and Waddesdon Manor, collected a number of her books, including this previously mentioned book and a copy of her published catalogue of books from 1764, which lists her entire collection.[41]. Within these salons she crossed paths with principal figures of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, Charles Pinot Duclos, Montesquieu, Helvétius, and Bernard de Fontenelle. [32] Pompadour's only contribution to the Stag Park was to accept it as a favorable alternative to a rival at court, as she stated: "It is his heart I want! Looking at the rain during the departure of his mistress' coffin from Versailles, the devastated king reportedly said: "La marquise n'aura pas de beau temps pour son voyage." Nel 1754 Madame de Pompadour perse la figlia Alexandrine ancora bambina. On 8 February 1756, the Marquise de Pompadour was named as the thirteenth lady in waiting to the queen, a position considered the most prestigious at the court, which accorded her with honors.[2]. [16] It was at this ball that the King, disguised along with seven courtiers as a yew tree, publicly declared his affection for Jeanne Antoinette. Pompadour quickly mastered the highly mannered court etiquette. Offering to the God Terme (or Terminus); engraved print by Madame de Pompadour of a drawing by Boucher, after an engraved gemstone by Guay c. 1755. Dog; engraved print by Madame de Pompadour of a drawing by Boucher, after an engraved gemstone by Guay c. 1755. [5] On 14 September 1745, Madame de Pompadour made her formal entry before the King, presented by the king's cousin, the Princess of Conti. Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, Marquesa de Pompadour (Paris, 29 de dezembro de 1721 — Palácio de Versalhes, 15 de abril de 1764), mais conhecida como Madame de Pompadour, [1] ou simplesmente apelidada como Reinette (" [22] France emerged from the war diminished and virtually bankrupt. Politics Jeanne Antoinette Poisson is better remembered as Madame de Pompadour, the official chief mistress of Louis XV. Dotada de inteligência, encanto, beleza, e ao mesmo tempo uma mulher fria, em termos físicos e na alma, Madame de Pompadour via seu papel como o de uma secretária confidencial do rei. Voltaire wrote: "I am very sad at the death of Madame de Pompadour. [1], Pompadour took charge of the king's schedule and was a valued aide and advisor, despite her frail health and many political enemies. François logo após o casamento passou a trabalhar no Hôtel des Invalides que servia de casa e hospital para os veteranos inválidos de guerra pobres, que era controlada pelos irmãos Pâris (Paris-Duverney, que era empreiteiro e tinha uma ativa participação como administrador do exército, e Paris-Montmartel, banqueiro do rei e da corte). Era considerada de uma classe socialmente superior a do marido e, segundo rumores, os irmãos Pâris combinaram seu casamento com Poisson para fornecer a Claude Le Blanc, secretário de Estado da guerra, acesso mais fácil a ela. [12], Depois de uma série de problemas envolvendo membros do corpo político de Luis XV, a Duquesa de Châteauroux morreu de pneumonia aos 27 anos. Unfortunately, Pompadour passed away before construction could be [35] Numerous sculptors and portrait painters were patronized by Pompadour, among them the court artist Jean-Marc Nattier, in the 1750s François Boucher, Jean-Baptiste Réveillon and François-Hubert Drouais. Madame de Pompadour created 52 engraved prints, of drawings by Boucher, after gemstone engravings by Guay. [5][6], Acredita-se que o verdadeiro pai de Jeanne-Antoinette, fosse Pâris de Montmartel que se tornou seu padrinho de batismo e que conhecia muito bem Madame Poisson, antes dela se casar. Determined to make her place at court secure, Pompadour immediately attempted to forge a good relationship with the royal family. In order to cement her continuing importance as favourite in the face of these impediments, Pompadour took on the role of "friend of the King" which she announced through artistic patronage. Thomas Kaiser, "Madame de Pompadour and the Theatres of Power". Era inaceitável que Luis XV tomasse como amante uma mulher que, embora rica, bela e culta, viesse da burguesia. Nas palavras de Marcelle Tinayre, vizinha e amiga íntima dos Poissons, Madame Poisson deu à filha a "educação de uma cortesã superior". Besides being one of the few 18th-century practitioners of gem engraving, she was an acclaimed stage actress in plays staged at her private theaters at Versailles and Bellevue (Hyde, 463-4). [2] On 15 December 1740, Tournehem made his nephew his sole heir, disinheriting all his other nephews and nieces, the children of his brother and sister. [11] Não tardou muito, e Luís demonstrou interesse por uma irmã da condessa de Mailly, Pauline, que veio a falecer ao dar à luz um filho do rei. She was particularly careful not to alienate the Queen, Marie Leszczyńska. Jeanne-Antoinette não foi a primeira. As suspeitas mais pungentes recaíam sobre o Conde de Maurepas, ministro da Marinha, que tinha sido um de seus mais ferrenhos inimigos, sempre conspirando contra ela. It may have been this sponsoring of Jeanne Antoinette's education in particular that sparked rumors of his paternity to Poisson. Only with great reluctance did Louis take punitive action against her known enemies, such as Louis François Armand du Plessis, duc de Richelieu. [9], Louise-Madeleine via na filha um reflexo de sua beleza e de sua vida. Quando Jeanne-Antoinette tinha quatro anos, seu pai se tornou bode expiatório em um escândalo do mercado negro envolvendo milho fornecido pelos irmãos Pâris. François prosperou e a família mudou-se para uma casa grande e bem-equipada na rue Saint-Marc. [3], Governava Versalhes, concedia audiências a embaixadores e tomava decisões sobre todas as questões ligadas à concessão de favores, de forma tão absoluta quanto qualquer monarca. I would not be so calm if I saw some pretty woman of the court or the capital trying to conquer it. Diderot portrayed Pompadour in a flattering light, most likely to ensure her support for Encyclopedie. O abismo intransponível que havia entre burguesia e aristocracia era sempre ressaltado, e que nunca uma burguesa seria o mesmo que uma marquesa ou duquesa. However it is also widely recognised that Madame de Pompadour engaged with prominent artists as a way to capture the attention of the king whilst cultivating her public image. [19], Through her position as court favourite Pompadour wielded considerable power and influence; she was elevated on 12 October 1752, to duchess and in 1756 to lady-in-waiting to the queen, the most noble rank possible for a woman at court. Voltaire foi um dos que ao longo deste aprendizado em Etioles se tornaram seus amigos para a vida inteira, mesmo ele tendo deixado a corte da França e rumado para a Prússia, para a corte de Frederico II da Prússia. But Madame de Pompadour supported great ministers like Bertin and Machaut who introduced important fiscal and economic reforms (trade, infrastructure, income taxes) which made France the richest nation in the world. [3] Art historian Melissa Hyde argues that the critics of Pompadour were driven by fears over the overturning of social and gender hierarchies that Pompadour's power and influence, as a woman who was not born into the aristocracy, represented. [4][31], Despite misconceptions perpetuated by her contemporaries and much of historical discourse, Pompadour did not supplant her role as mistress by employing replacement lovers for the king. [13] In 1744, Jeanne Antoinette sought to catch the eye of the King while he led the hunt in the forest of Sénart. Jeanne-Antoinette Poisson, a outrora Madame d'Etioles, seria apresentada à corte, mas para isso, era necessário antes de mais nada, que ela obtivesse um título de nobreza. [21] This was the beginning of the Diplomatic Revolution, which saw France allied to her former enemy Austria. Pompadour was not involved, other than to accept it as a necessity. [18] On 7 May, the official separation between her and her husband was pronounced. However, wanting to attract the King's notice, Jeanne Antoinette drove directly in front of the King's path, once in a pink phaeton, wearing a blue dress, and once in a blue phaeton, wearing a pink dress. Melissa Hyde has suggested that some of the artworks made under Pompadour's purview by other hands, notably the 1758 portrait by Boucher of Mme de Pompadour at Her Toilette, can be fruitfully viewed as collaborations with Pompadour. [6] Due to poor health, thought to be whooping cough, Jeanne Antoinette returned home in January 1730 at age 9. [38], Madame de Pompadour is considered an amateur printmaker who made print engravings with the help of Boucher. She secured titles of nobility for herself and her relatives, and built a network of clients and supporters. Tendo ele mesmo cuidado do futuro financeiro do sobrinho, tornando-o sócio minoritário em várias pequenas empresas coletoras de impostos, e em 15 de dezembro de 1740 Tournehem deserdou todos os outros parentes, fazendo deste único sobrinho seu herdeiro absoluto. Mas, pouco tempo depois, para incredulidade geral e consternação de toda a sociedade, Luis XV interessou-se por mais uma irmã, a caçula das três, Marie-Anne, marquesa de La Tournelle, detentora de grande força e ímpeto, foi sagrada duquesa de Châteauroux.
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