Maria Theresa's Hungarian army recaptured Linz and marched into Bavaria as far as Munich. The two governments proposed to unite their royal families by marrying Louis to Mariana Victoria of Spain, the seven-year-old daughter of Philip V of Spain, who was himself grandson of Louis XIV. - Uomo di stato e cardinale francese, nato a Grenoble il 22 agosto 1680, morto a Lione il 2 marzo 1758. She described the Comtesse as "The most stupid and impertinent creature imaginable". Il film fu trasmesso in Italia su History Channel nel 2013 e successivamente venne ritrasmesso su Rai Storia nel programma a.C.d.C. On 18 May, Fleury assembled a new alliance combining France, Prussia, Spain and Bavaria, later joined by Poland and Sardinia. The King's government immediately dismissed the leaders of the Parlement and confined them to their residences. He summoned his doctor and a priest, and then fainted. When the King died, Voltaire wrote of his reign, "Fifty-six years, consumed with fatigues and wanderings."[122]. The King responded by demanding immediate registration, which the Parlement reluctantly granted on 19 May. She remained close to the King until her death in 1764. 1661: il cardinale Mazarin muore. The acquisition of Corsica was more complicated. He was the creator of the unpopular "Vingtieme" tax (1749), which taxed all citizens, including the nobility, at the same rate, and also freed the prices of grain (1754), which initially greatly increased agricultural production. [46] Resistance to the new measures grew with the church and in the provinces, which had their own parlements. Young Louis' failings were attributed to inexperience and manipulation by his handlers. However, the King's lack of further reforms in his last years disappointed Voltaire. Louis XV left Versailles to lead his armies in the Netherlands in person, and French field command was given to the German-born Maréchal Maurice de Saxe, a highly competent general. He was an advocate of the continuation of the absolute monarchy in the style of Louis XIV. [79], The new Controller of Finances, Henri Bertin, a protege of Madame Pompadour named on 23 November 1759, reduced the luxury taxes of his predecessor, and instead proposed a broadening of the tax base to include those classes which had long been excluded, and a new survey of the wealth of the nobility. As the hours passed, the red eruptions of the disease grew worse, and the doctors began to fear for his life. Louis sent the army to subdue the Corsican rebels; the army on the island eventually numbered twenty-seven thousand soldiers. The British had established a settlement in the islands, which were also claimed by Spain. This otherwise popular move was marred by the king's indiscreet decision to bring along Marie-Anne de Mailly. For that reason he allowed them to lead him, which contributed to his failure with finance, which was the worse aspect of his reign. The King was a proficient amateur astronomer, who collaborated with the best French astronomers. They became known as "The Triumvirate". The King of Prussia had died on 31 May and was succeeded by his son Frederick the Great, a military genius with ambitions to expand Prussia's borders. With French funding, and assistance from Louis's personal secret intelligence service, the Secret de Roi, Gustave III returned to Stockholm. The elector of Bavaria, supported by Frederick, challenged the succession of Maria Theresa, and on 17 December 1740 Frederick invaded the Austrian province of Silesia. [41], The war in Germany was not going well; the French and Bavarian forces were faced with the combined armies of Austria, Saxony, Holland, Sardinia and Hanover. [121], In the 1740s Voltaire was welcomed to the court as a playwright and poet, but his low rank as the son of a notary and the fact his father was also a Jansenist soon displeased the King and the Queen, and he was finally forced to depart Versailles. The most important musical figure of the reign was Jean Philippe Rameau, who was the court composer through the 1740s and 1750s, and wrote more than thirty operas for Louis and his court. The second measure was the abolition of the dixième, a tax of ten percent of revenue, which had been created to finance the war, and its replacement by the vingtième, a tax of five percent on net revenue, which, unlike the dixième, taxed the income of all French citizens, including for the first time the income from the property of the clergy and the nobility. [50] In March 1748, Louis proposed a conference in Aix-en-Chapelle to bring the war to an end. In 1765 the Parlement of Brittany in Rennes denied the authority of the King's officers to impose taxes without its permission, and went on strike. "No one was a greater expert at dissimulation than the King", wrote d'Argenson. He was known popularly as Le Bien-aimé (the well-beloved). Government of the Duke of Bourbon (1723–1726), Foreign relations – New alliances; the War of the Polish Succession, Queen, children, and the first mistresses, Achievements and dismissal of the government, Government of the Duke de Choiseul (1758–1770), Finances and the brief ministry of Silhouette, Commerce, agriculture and the "Starvation Pact" rumor, Preparations for a new war with Great Britain, Government of Maupeou and the Triumvirate (1770–1774), Legends: "After us the deluge" and the Parc-aux-Cerfs. Re di Francia (1715-1774). In 1749, the King decided to purge the hospital of Jansenists and corruption, appointed a new "Supérieure" against the will of the administrators, who resigned, then appointed four temporary administrators, and asked the First President of the Parlement of Paris, René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou, to implement his decree for the reorganization of the hospital. In 1740 Frederick William I, the King of Prussia declared "Since the Treaty of Vienna France is the arbiter of Europe."[38]. [5], The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. [108], Several of his contemporaries who worked closely with him tried to describe the personality of Louis XV. He was the King's doctor, and treated Madame de Pompadour, but was also a celebrated economic theorist, whose collected writings, "Tableau Économique" (1758), were avidly read by the King and his Court: Louis referred to him as "my thinker." The package of reforms was put together by his finance minister D'Arnouville and was approved by the King and presented in two decrees issued in May 1749. Registered as a daughter of. Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé),[1] was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. Following the advice of his preceptor Fleury, Louis XV appointed his cousin Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon, to replace the late Duke of Orléans as prime minister. [91] Decades later, during the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution, the Comtesse was targeted by the Jacobins as a symbol of the hated old regime; she was guillotined on 8 December 1793. [415], Religioni "[44] Louis followed this advice and decided to govern without a prime minister. He was a critic of government regulation, and coined the term "bureaucracy" (literally "A government of desks"). – 1. By the middle of the 18th century, France had the most modern and extensive road network in the world. The Parlement of Normandy immediately supported that of Besançon; it wrote a remonstrance to the King on 5 July 1760, declaring that the Parlements represented all classes: "One King, one law, one Parlement; the law of the kingdom is a sacred pact of your alliance with the French nation; it is a kind of contract which destines the King to reign and the people to obey. However, the best French commander, Maurice de Saxe, had died two years after the War of the Austrian Succession, and the new French commanders, Charles, Prince of Soubise, the Duke D'Estrees and the Duke de Broglie detested each other, and were rarely willing to cooperate. Stanislaus traveled to Warsaw, where he was crowned King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania on 12 September. In January 1756, Louis sent an ultimatum to London, which was rejected by the British government. In the beginning of Louis's reign, the Duke of Orleans continued to manage the government, and took the title of Prime Minister in August 1723, but while visiting his mistress, far from the court and medical care, Orleans died in December of the same year. Tension grew between the Duke of Bourbon and Cardinal de Fleury over the King's favor. In order to save on court expenses, he sent the youngest four daughters of the king to be educated at the Abbey of Fontevrault. Jassie and Merrick argued in 1994 that the king's troubles mounted steadily, and the people blamed and ridiculed his debauchery. The King's relationships with the three sisters became a subject of gossip in the court and in Paris, where a popular comic poem was recited, ending: "Choosing an entire family – is that being unfaithful, or constant?"[56]. Trova una vasta selezione di Comodini d'antiquariato Luigi XV a prezzi vantaggiosi su eBay. Con il riassetto economico e con il trasferimento della corte nella nuova e splendida reggia di Versailles, incomincia il regno fastoso del "Re Sole". Luigi XV - Il sole nero (Louis XV, le soleil noir) Florian Cadiou: Film televisivo 2011 Luigi XVI - L'uomo che non voleva essere re (Louis XVI, l'homme qui ne voulait pas être roi) Gabriel Dufay: Film televisivo 2012: The War of the Vendee: Louis Rubera: Film uscito in home video Paoli et Lafayette, héros du nouveau monde: Baptist Agostini-Croce Instead, the Maréchal, who detested the Austrians, made an agreement to join with the Prussians against Austria, and the war began. The Republic of Genoa did not have the military forces to conquer the island, and permitted Louis to send French troops to occupy the ports and major cities, to keep the island from falling into British hands. The King of Sardinia would be compensated with certain territories in Lombardy; while the Sardinians would return Naples, in exchange for Parma and Plaisance. Da Napoleon a Marie Antoinette, tutti i film su Luigi XVI, la “grande comparsa” Raramente visto come protagonista, spesso dipinto come un inetto, Luigi XVI venne comunque ritratto in decine di film sulla Rivoluzione e l’inizio dell’era napoleonica. This was a complete reversal of France's historic conflict with Austria, which had been underway for nearly two hundred years, and it was shocking to many in the French Court. [115], Louis was a major patron of architecture; he spent more money on buildings over the course of his reign than Louis XIV. France had constructed Fort Duquesne to defend their frontier against the Americans; Britain sent the young George Washington with a small force to construct his own fortification, Fort Necessity, nearby. While the Parlements of Burgundy, Provence and Artois bowed to the King's demands, Brittany and Languedoc refused. The government and church imposed repressive measures. Since Jean du Barry was already married, to give her legitimacy he arranged for her to become engaged to his brother, Guillaume, a retired soldier. The Parlement of Franche-Comté in Besançon refused to collect the vingtieme tax imposed by the King to finance the war, claiming that only the Parlement could impose taxes. However, on 3 May, he studied the eruptions on his hands, summoned the Archbishop, and announced, "I have the petite variole. Following the dismissal of Choiseul, the King encouraged his cousin and ally Charles III of Spain to settle the crisis over the Falkland Islands with the aim of avoiding a war. The faculty of the Sorbonne, then primarily a theological college and a center of Jansenism, demanded clarification from the government. [88] She was raised by the Dames de Sacre-Coeur, and had various jobs as a shop assistant and designer of dresses before she became the mistress of a self-proclaimed count, Jean du Barry. Figlio di Luigi, duca di Borgogna, pronipote e successore di Luigi XIV, durante la sua minorità il governo fu affidato a Filippo di Orléans; poi, dal 1726 al 1743, al cardinale Fleury, alla morte del quale grande influenza assunsero la marchesa di Pompadour e la contessa di Dubarry. Louis formally ratified the treaty on 23 February, on the same day that his statue was unveiled on the Place Louis XV (today the Place de la Concorde)[81], The winter of 1763–64 was particularly harsh; Madame de Pompadour contracted pneumonia, and died on 15 April. A French fleet in the Mediterranean defeated the British at the Battle of Minorca of 1756, and captured that island. When some red eruptions appeared on his skin, the doctors first diagnosed petite variole, or smallpox, which caused optimism, since the patient and doctors both believed he had already had the illness. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. In Franche-Comté, Bordelaise and Rouen, the Parlements refused to follow the decrees of the royal intendants. [61], In August Frederick of Prussia made a lightning strike into Saxony and on 5 November 1757, though outnumbered by the French nearly two to one, decisively defeated the army of the Prince de Soubise at the Battle of Rossbach. Maupeou and two other conservative ministers, Abbot Terray for finance and the Duc d'Aiguillon for foreign affairs and war, took charge of the government. Popular legends at the time described it as a kind of harem, organized by Madame de Pompadour, where a group of women were kidnapped and kept for the King's pleasure. Russia and Prussia, occupied with the division of Poland, protested but did not intervene.[104]. In August 1774 King Louis XVI granted her letters of Official Recognition of Nobility, identical to her sister. He ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. - Nacque ad Ajaccio, da Giovanni Gerolamo Ramolino, ispettore generale [...] l’esercito del governo di Paoli oppose alle truppe del conte de Vaux inviate da. The birth of a long-awaited heir, which ensured the survival of the dynasty for the first time since 1712, was welcomed with celebration in all spheres of French society. The Jansenists were allied with the Gallicans, theologians who wanted the Catholic Church in France to be distinctly French. Both sides began to prepare for war. Philippe Louis Marie Innocent Christophe Juste de Narbonne-Lara (Parma, 28 December 1750 – Paris, 10 May 1834), Duc de Narbonne-Lara. [89] Through her acquaintances with the nobility, she was invited to Versailles, where the King saw her and was immediately attracted to her. On 20 November, when the Parlement returned, the King again summoned de Maupeou for an audience and again demanded action without delay. The King referred privately to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes ("braggart of crimes"). Da Napoleon a Marie Antoinette, tutti i film su Luigi XVI, la “grande comparsa” Raramente visto come protagonista, spesso dipinto come un inetto, Luigi XVI venne comunque ritratto in decine di film sulla Rivoluzione e l’inizio dell’era napoleonica. One of the first priorities of the Duke of Bourbon was to find a bride for the King, to assure the continuity of the monarchy, and especially to prevent the succession to the throne of the Orleans branch of the family, the rivals of his branch. Storico, Francia, 1966. [94], De Gournay and Quesnay proposed in particular the liberalization of agricultural markets, which were strictly controlled, to encourage greater production, competition and lower prices. [16], In 1719, France, in alliance with Britain and the Dutch Republic, declared war on Spain. He also reimposed the regulation of the price of grain, which had been freed in 1763 and 1764; these controls were an issue which would disturb the government and provoke agitation until the French Revolution. Using the Prussian army as a model, he reformed French military doctrine, making the state and not the officers responsible for training and equipping soldiers. On 21 January 1771, royal agents and musketeers arrived at the homes of each of the Parlement members, informing them that their positions were confiscated and ordering them to leave Paris and return to their home provinces, and not to leave them. He was devastated and remained in seclusion for several weeks after she died. © Blogo 2011-2020 | T-Mediahouse – P. IVA 06933670967 | 2.0.9, Venerdì 13 parte VIII: la colonna sonora di “Incubo a Manhattan” per la prima volta in vinile, Danai Gurira prima deputata nera al Congresso nel biopic The Fighting Shirley Chisholm, Stasera in tv: “Kingsman 2 – Il cerchio d’oro” su Rai 2, Let Them All Talk: trailer del film di Steven Soderbergh con Meryl Streep, Corto Circuito: in sviluppo un remake ispanico da Spyglass. Belleville had to abandon Prague, with a loss of eight thousand men. Damiens ‹dami̯ẽ´›, Robert-François. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France. [65][66] Luigi XV - Il sole nero è un film per la televisione francese del 2009 diretto da Thierry Binisti. [128], Some scholars have ignored the king's own actions and turned instead to his image in the mind of the public. Scopriamo allora quali sono i 10 migliori film ambientati nella Francia di Re Sole: Chi ha scritto la colonna sonora di Tremors 5: Bloodlines (2015), © PopcornTv - WebTv legalmente riconosciuta - Delta Pictures S.r.l Via Giovanni Boglietti 2, BI - PIVA: 02154000026 - Supplemento della Testata Giornalistica Delta Press, Tribunale di Biella n. 579 del 10/02/2015, 10 migliori film ambientati nella francia del re sole. [59], The undeclared French and Indian War followed, with Britain treating the French colonies as an enemy. Bernier argued that these acts would have avoided the French Revolution, but his successor, Louis XVI, reversed his policies. L’unica volta in cui ebbe l’onore di essere il protagonista, seppur di una parte del film, fu in La pazza storia del mondo di Mel Brooks: destino crudele, finalmente al centro dell’attenzione, ma in una commedia. "A Fractured Mirror: The Royal Portraiture of Louis XV and the Search for a Successful Image through Architecture, or, Versailles Is the Thing in Which We Will Catch the Character of the King." "[39] This attitude did not please France's allies, who saw an opportunity to take parts of the Habsburg empire, or Louis's generals, who for a century had won glory fighting Austria. "[84], The Queen was deeply affected by the death of the Dauphin in 1765, then the death of her father in 1766, and then her daughter-in-law. [136], E. H. Gombrich wrote in 2005, "Louis XV and Louis XVI, the Sun King's [Louis XIV] successors, were incompetent, and content merely to imitate their great predecessor's outward show of power. Choiseul asked for two days to manage his affairs, but the King refused. The fluctuation of grain prices would eventually become a factor in the French Revolution.[70]. "[111], "He was the most excellent of men", wrote another contemporary, Duffort de Cheverny, "but, in defiance of himself, he spoke about the affairs of state as if someone else was governing. During his 59-year reign, France was never threatened by conquest as no foreign army crossed its borders (though some of its overseas colonies were lost). However, the King kept du Barry close to him until the final days before his death, when he sent her away before he made confession. [62], British naval supremacy prevented France from reinforcing its colonies overseas, and British naval squadrons raided the French coast at Cancale and Le Havre and landed on the Ile d'Aix and Le Havre. On 15 February 1723, the king's majority was declared by the Parlement of Paris, officially ending the regency. She was the illegitimate daughter of a Paris fermier-general, and was married to a banker, Charles Guillaume Lenormant d'Étoiles. William Doyle, "The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon, by Colin Jones". When the Royal Council blocked the pursuits of the Parlement, the Parlement wrote a protest to the King, declaring, "Sire, your Parlement cannot recognize any intermediate power it and your person; no, your Council has over the Parlement no authority, superiority, or jurisdiction. Voltaire published le Siecle de Louis XIV and l'Essai sur les moeurs et l'esprit des nations in 1756. Married on 5 December 1777 to Charles de Boysseulh, vicomte de Boysseuilh, with whom she had three children. [4] When Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. Salì al trono alla morte di Luigi XIV. Durata 102 min. [30], Fleury's government expanded commerce, both within France and with the rest of the world. [78] The King announced that he was giving his silver service to the mint, to be melted down and made into money. In addition, at the age of fifteen (1777), she received the further amount of 12,000 livres as a renewed pension. La carrozze che lo condusse a Varenne, ove tentò inutilmente la fuga verso il Belgio. However, the King's favor turned to Jeanne Bécu, the comtesse du Barry. [35] Fleury was less energetic in his actions to restore the Polish throne to Stanlslaw, who was blockaded by the Russian navy and army in Danzig. "[52] The King did not have the communication skills to explain his decision to the French public, and did not see any need to do so. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. Nel vuoto di potere, il giovane Louis afferma la sua intenzione di governare la Francia. Raramente visto come protagonista, spesso dipinto come un inetto, Luigi XVI venne comunque ritratto in decine di film sulla Rivoluzione e l’inizio dell’era napoleonica. The other was his disciple, the Minister of the Commerce of the King, Jacques Claude Marie Vincent de Gournay. After the death of the Madame de Pompadour, several women in the court sought to replace her, including the Duchess of Gramont, the sister of the Duke of Choiseul, the King's chief minister. The King constructed a set of luxurious rooms for Madame du Barry on the floor above his offices; Madame du Barry also reigned in the Petit Trianon, which the King had built for Madame de Pompadour, and in the Pavillon de Louveciennes, also built for Madame de Pompadour. [69], Machaud D'Arnouville was brought into the government with the sponsorship of d'Argenson, but the two men gradually became rivals and enemies. The French obtained so little of what they had fought for that they adopted the expressions Bête comme la paix ("Stupid as the peace") and Travailler pour le roi de Prusse ("To work for the king of Prussia", i.e. dell'informativa sulla privacy. Engels, Jens Ivo. Transportation and shipping were improved with the completion of the Saint-Quentin canal (linking the Oise and Somme rivers) in 1738, which was later extended to the Escaut River and the Low Countries, and the systematic building of a national road network. Scholars point to the French Revolution, which broke out 15 years after his death. He did not keep up the practice of Mass and performing his religious obligations to the people. The Duke's rigid and cold personality did not appeal to the young King, who turned to his old tutor for advice on how to run the affairs of state. She began to hold a salon, which attracted writers and aristocrats. Louis had been very much in love with the Queen, and they were inseparable in the early years of his reign, but as his family grew and the Queen was constantly pregnant or exhausted by her maternities, he began to look elsewhere. He drafted his own will, writing: "If I made errors, it was not from a lack of will, but from a lack of talents, and for not having been supported as I wished to have been, particularly in matters of religion. The birth of the king's male heir in 1729 dispelled the risks of a succession crisis in France. The king was a notorious womaniser; the monarch's virility was supposed to be another way in which his power was manifested. "[137], Jeffrey Merrick wrote in 1986 that Louis XV's weak and ineffective rule accelerated the general decline that culminated in the French Revolution in 1789. Oscar Luigi. [73], The campaign against the Jesuits divided the royal household; his son the Dauphin, his daughters and the Queen supported the Jesuits, while Madame de Pompadaour, whose influence in the court was criticized by the Jesuits, wanted them gone. The King was attended by six physicians, six surgeons, each of whom took his pulse and gave his diagnosis. [233], Diritto civile Un personaggio sullo sfondo, un inetto se vogliamo, un vinto: tralasciando le numerose pellicole del periodo pre-bellico andiamo a Napoléon, film del ’55 diretto da Sacha Guitry che, come suggerisce il titolo tratta della vita dell’Imperatore. Louis XV had several illegitimate children, although the exact number is unknown. After the assassination attempt, the King invited his heir, the Dauphin, to attend all of the Royal Council meetings, and quietly closed down the chateau at Versailles where he had met with his short-term mistresses. He first won assurances from Britain and Holland that they would not interfere in the war, while lining up alliances with Spain and the King of Sardinia in exchange for pieces of the Habsburg Empire. At the surgeon's insistence, the King was brought back to the Palace of Versailles for treatment, along with Madame du Barry and the others. In 1769 he raised the Naval school to the level of a royal academy, to train officers for his new fleet. In the same year Russia, Prussia and Austria signed a secret agreement to exclude Stanislaus from the throne, and put forward another candidate, Augustus III, son of the dead Polish king. After the dismissal of 139 members of provincial parlements for opposing the official government and papal doctrine of Unigenitus, the Parlement of Paris had to register the Unigenitus papal bull and was forbidden to hear religious cases in the future. The first son, born 4 September 1729, became the dauphin and heir to the throne, though he did not live to rule. The French army launched a new offensive against the Prussians and Spain, as promised by its agreement with France, launched an invasion in Portugal, an ally of Britain. The King held them responsible for not preventing the assassination attempt, and their government displeased Madame de Pompadour. The censors of Louis XV at first permitted these publications; the first volume of the Encyclopédie received official permission because the government censors believed it was purely a collection of scientific articles. He also downplayed the importance of the French Navy, which would prove be a fatal mistake in future conflicts. Madame Pompadour herself accepted it as a preferable alternative to a rival at court, as she stated: "It is his heart I want! [85], In January 1766, while the King was still mourning the death of the Dauphin, the Parlement of Brittany issued another rejection of the King's authority to collect taxes. Le scene dell'opera in costruzione si sono svolte nell'opera del castello che era in fase di restauro al momento delle riprese. Il film fu trasmesso in Italia su History Channel nel 2013 e successivamente venne ritrasmesso su Rai Storia nel programma a.C.d.C. The final treaty was signed in Paris on 10 February 1763. His workshops produced fine furniture, porcelain, tapestries and other goods in the Louis XV Style which were exported to all the capital cities of Europe. Halley's Comet finally passed the earth in April 1759, and caused enormous public attention and anxiety, but no floods. Married on 21 December 1784 to Jules de Boysseulh (her step-brother; son of the first marriage of her mother's husband), with whom she had one daughter. The Regent disgraced the stubborn and vain Villeroy in 1722, depriving the king of whom he almost considered as his father. The process was advanced by the capture of Maastricht by the Maréchal de Saxe on 10 April 1748. [72], In France, the Parlements had taken the lead in attacking the Jesuits. He was bled three times by the surgeons, without effect. Once again the King yielded to Madame de Pomapdour and her allies; the new decrees were withdrawn, Bertin was moved to a different position, the tax rolls were not enlarged, and no new taxes were collected; the debt remained.[80]. He went to Berlin, where he became a counselor to Frederick the Great, before living in Geneva and Savoy, far from Paris. Her appearance at the Court scandalized the Duke de Choiseul, but pleased the enemies of the Duke within the Court. To defend its territories. Many of the hospital staff and officials were Jansenists, while the board of directors of the hospital included many prominent members of the Parlement of Paris.
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