La crescita dello spread mise in enorme difficoltà il sistema bancario italiano che stava già fronteggiando crescenti sofferenze negli impieghi del settore privato (cioè le perdite dovute a prestiti e affidamenti erogati ad imprese andate in crisi a causa della diminuzione della domanda di beni e servizi).  As stated many times by Minister Mastella, if the referendum would have been confirmed this would have led directly to the fall of the government After the crisis, even though Italy avoided any bank bailouts and the direct intervention of the European Commission (EC), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) – the so-called ‘Troika’, the country’s recovery has been very weak. As a matter of fact, a growing number of scams have been reported, in which Italian newcomers are requested payment for accommodation and access to work by fellow citizens and locals11 – a sort of historic recurrence of the ethnic-broker or padrone system that accompanied Italy’s great emigration of the past. Pier Luigi Celli, “Figlio mio, lascia questo Paese”, La Repubblica, 30 November 2009. http://www.repubblica.it/2009/11/sezioni/scuola_e_universita/servizi/celli-lettera/celli-lettera/celli-lettera.html; last accessed 13 August 2014. ISTAT. Focussing on Italian citizens only, there is a clear growing trend of Italian nationals moving their residency abroad. It took huge taxpayer-financed bail … In particular, we look at how the political elites discursively framed the relationship between the crisis and the outflows and to what extent the most recent outflows intertwine with the latest labour market reforms. Last modified on Wed 1 Jul 2020 13.17 EDT. In the second part of the chapter, we analyse both the public discourse on and the policy response to the most recent outflows. Fiscal stimulus could be counterproductive if, as is possible, investors demand a much wider credit spread to accept fresh Italian paper. Among the most popular blogs are Italians by Beppe Severgnini, journalist of one of the most important Italian newspapers, Il Corriere della Sera, and Giovani Talenti (Young talents) hosted by Sergio Nava, journalist of the main economic Italian newspaper Il Sole 24Ore. These actions are certainly consistent with the hegemonic narratives concerning the current emigration, where both the governmental rhetoric and media reports insist on the presence of graduates. Elezioni politiche 4 marzo 2018: un bonus per Berlusconi o una prova generale? 270, 21 December 2005.. Yields are still some distance from those extreme distress levels. The figure is, to some extent, inflated by the fact that many self-employed are de facto working full time for a different employer, since there is a lower tax wedge for independent contractors. On 24 January 2008 Prime Minister of Italy Romano Prodi lost a vote of confidence in the Senate by a vote of 161 to 156 votes, causing the downfall of his government. Three regions have exceptions to the system detailed above. “Giovannini su dati Ocse: ‘Dimostrano che italiani poco occupabili’”, La Repubblica, 9 October 2013, http://www.repubblica.it/scuola/2013/10/09/news/giovannini_su_dati_ocse_dimostrano_che_italiani_poco_occupabili-68246867/ last access 12 August 2014. Nor is it really a question of how deep the downturn will be, although early estimates are that it is going to be a bad one. By the same token, in 2013 Italy scored poorly, last place among 20 OECD countries, for percentage of adults (aged 16–65) who worked in skilled occupations during the previous 5 years (OECD 2013c: 442). The explanation in the mismatch of the two data, apart from possible differences in collecting them, lies also in the above-mentioned reason. It is still pivoted on the young and talented, the highly skilled, the graduates, the “best of Italy” (Tirabassi and Del Prà 2014), who would be forced – rather than choose – to leave the country in growing numbers, since Italy is ruled by the elderly and they are not offered anything but fixed-term contracts, unrewarding career-prospects, and peanuts-paid jobs. As everyone who has familiarity with the collection of data on international mobility knows, it is difficult to say exactly how many people are leaving or entering Italy every year. Stock and % annual change of Italian residents in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, 2001–2013, Stock of permanent Italian resident in Switzerland, Source: Statistical office of Germany, Switzerland, Austria and Belgium. Since the 1970s – to consider the post-war period only – the institutions involved ranged from local level administrations – e.g. 10), according to the AIRE about 16,000 Italians registered through the local consulates in 2013, but if we consider how many Italians obtained a national insurance number (NIN) in the same year, a mandatory document that allows to work in the UK, then the figure rises to about 44,000. Both candidates supported big tax cuts and generous spending programs. In the 2 years to the second quarter 2015 the Italian GDP rose by a meagre 0.4 %, while the UK gained 5.7 %. Thus, not only the traditionally anti-immigrant campaigns of the Northern League are now recrudescing, but also the minister of the Interior, Angelino Alfano, member of the current broad coalition government led by Matteo Renzi, recently declared that the government will not allow that even “a single immigrant take the job of an Italian citizen”.7. In some respects, Italy presents all the prerequisites for suffering from a ‘brain drain’ issue. It described the recent migratory waves as the so-called nuove mobilità (“new mobility”), in order to mark the distance from the mass emigration of the past, in that the latter featured humble, unskilled, poorly educated individuals and families forced to leave the country out of sheer misery, with nothing but cardboard suitcases, relying on the chain migration system to find a job at destination; while the former resonates much more with the population of the so-called “Eurostars” (Favell 2008), a generation of highly skilled and intensely mobile people who are equipped to roam between “Eurocities” and global capitals to make the best out of the “human face” of globalization (Favell et al.  On 21 February the Italian Radicals announced an agreement with the Democratic Party, accepting to present themselves in list with the latter, under the agreement they will have nine MPs elected in the Parliament, and appointment of Emma Bonino as Minister in case of victory. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. In A. Mammone, E. Giap Parini, & G. Veltri (Eds. In breve il giovedì nero,il lungo ciclo di crescita postbellica,lo spettro della sovraproduzione,la ripresa dell’economia europea 1924-25,le crisi congiunturali del crollo di Wall Street,la crisi degli anni'30 in Europa,il crollo del sistema monetario e l, Storia contemporanea — Even before the current lockdown it was facing a fourth recession in little more than a decade and there has been only minimal growth in living standards in two decades. The chapter describes in detail the socio-demographic profile of the Italian emigrants and their main European destinations since the 2000s, relying on Italian data, collected by the ministries of the Interior, Foreign Affairs and Labor, the National statistical office (ISTAT). This means the coalition or party that wins a plurality of votes in each region is guaranteed a majority of the seats assigned to that region. A recent survey (in Italian) by the Bank of Italy (Banca d’Italia) has reported that Italian companies in general have suffered a marked worsening of their revenues since the second half of 2008. It was quickly replaced by the argument that saw emigration as a safety valve to deal with unemployment and a prospect to establish ‘colonies’ of consumers of Italian products abroad.  During its course the UDEUR party Senator Stefano Cusumano decided to confirm the confidence and to support the prime minister, even against the orders of his party's leader. The tourist industry is effectively dead for 2020. La crisi del debito italiano divenne evidente nel mese di Giugno 2011, subito dopo che Grecia, Irlanda e Portogallo ormai ad un passo dal default avevano chiesto aiuto all'Europa, ed andò via via peggiorando. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, of Labour, of the Interior, of the Economy – and ad hoc created public agencies. L'Italia è, infatti, uno dei paesi promotori dell'Unione Europea e come tutti gli stati membri ha aderito al cosiddetto patto di stabilità. According to ISTAT, over 320,000 people left Italy between 2009 and 2012, 40 % more than the previous 4 years. As in Italy it is relatively difficult to dismiss employees, especially in the public sector, there has been an increase of poor quality employment and unemployment among the most vulnerable groups, like the youth. La crisi di un debito sovrano consiste in un rialzo eccessivo dei tassi di interesse sui titoli di stato che vengono periodicamente messi all'asta per finanziare il rinnovo e la crescita del debito pubblico. From manpower export to brain drain? Ma i numeri dicono esattament…, Le operazioni di mercato della BCE per la gestione dei tassi di interesse e del…, IL CREDIT CRUNCH (Rassegna Stampa Tematica - Senato), CREDIT CRUNCH. These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. Il rapporto di lavoro al tempo della crisi: modelli europei e. Ciocca, P. (2010). In our analysis, we focus our attention primarily on outflows from Italy towards Northern Europe, testing the conventional assumption that the country, in a sort of path dependent response, recurred to emigration as a viable remedy to economic strain and as a safety valve to release the social pressure of high level of unemployment. Il crollo delle esportazioni determinò una crescita negativa del PIL nel 2008 (-1,2%) ed una delle peggiori performance nel 2009 (-5,5%). Saranno queste ultime ad originare la crisi economica che stiamo vivendo. Senato: stop alla creazione di nuovi gruppi scollegati dai partiti, Il Parlamento ha approvato la legge sul biotestamento, La Lega di Salvini teme di essere trascinata al centro dall'alleanza con Berlusconi, La vicenda delle banche in dissesto, il caso Etruria e la regolamentazione dei mercati finanziari, Linee politiche divergenti per la sinistra e il centrosinistra, Riforme e giustizia: approvata la legge sul whistleblowing, Le coalizioni elettorali, la mucca nel corridoio e le elezioni politiche 2018, Elezioni regionali in Sicilia e referendum consultivi in Lombardia e Veneto, Il Parlamento ha approvato una nuova legge elettorale: il Rosatellum 2.0, Valutazioni dei risultati delle elezioni amministrative 2016, Elezioni amministrative 2016 e ballottaggi, Le unioni civili sono ora regolamentate da una legge dello Stato, L'elezione del Presidente della Repubblica Sergio Mattarella e la rottura del patto del Nazareno, Risultati elezioni europee 25 maggio 2014, La rielezione di Giorgio Napolitano a Presidente della Repubblica, Parlamento: la situazione di stallo dopo le elezioni politiche 2013, Risultati elezioni politiche 24 febbraio 2013, Risultati elezioni politiche 24 febbraio 2013 per partito, Corruzione, clientelismo e voto di scambio dopo Tangentopoli, Il crollo delle vecchie ideologie di destra e di sinistra in Italia, Il seme della corruzione nella politica italiana, Le origini dello Stato italiano e la Costituzione repubblicana. Inoltre, a partire dal secondo dopo-guerra, le economie capitalistiche iniziarono ad esaltare i vantaggi del credito facile per consentire alle famiglie di procurarsi ogni tipo di comodità, dalla casa all’automobile, dagli elettrodomestici ai viaggi; questa nuova economia indirizzò le famiglie al consumo e non più al risparmio, e al rinvio al futuro della spesa attraverso strumenti quali bancomat ed il pagamento a rate. Nel 2008 il sistema economico italiano era già gravato da problemi strutturali che da tempo ne frenavano la crescita e che hanno impedito una adeguata reazione agli shock economici provenienti sia dalle ripercussioni della crisi finanziaria internazionale del 2007 che della crisi dei debiti sovrani del 2011. A causa delll'elevato stock di debito pubblico e della perdurante scarsa crescita economica, l'Italia è stata una delle nazioni più colpite dalla crisi dei debiti sovrani, tuttavia, a differenza di Grecia, Spagna e Portogallo, non ha chiesto aiuti diretti alle istituzioni europee, che erano disposte a concedere questi aiuti solo a condizione di una rapida attuazione di riforme e prescrizioni con pesanti ripercussioni sul piano economico-sociale. Se Italia non migliora è giusta’”, La Repubblica, 16 April 2012, http://www.repubblica.it/scienze/2012/04/16/…/barca_fuga_di_cervelli_se_italia_non_migliora_giusta‐33394354/; last accessed 17 April 2014. The Rose for Italy originally planned to run alone with Bruno Tabacci as their PM candidate, but shortly before the filing deadline, they decided to form joint lists with the UDC. The percentage declined from its peak at 14 % in 2012, but it’s still double than the pre-crisis period (Eurostat 2013). Or do they treat Italy the way they treated Greece and insist there is no alternative to austerity? Massimiliano Mazzanti, the Italian consul in London, confirmed that the UK is a booming destination for Italians looking for a job. Government debt is high, its banking system is weak and it is a strategically important economy, the eurozone’s third biggest. France shows a similar gap (23 % vs. 6 %) and even in Spain where unemployment rates are higher, earning a degree makes a decisive difference in the labour market (33 % with no qualification vs. 16 % among graduates) (OECD 2013a).  The state of the electoral system had been under criticism not only within the outgoing government, but also among the opposition and in the general population, because of the impossibility to choose candidates directly and of the risks that a close-call election may not grant a stable majority in the Senate. The exhibit witnesses the stories of many young Italians who have recently arrived in Australia and have adapted to all kind of occupations in order to make a living, while still pursuing their individual dream-job. As recently as 30 December 2010, the then Berlusconi’s government approved a measure (Law 238) formally aimed at attracting EU skilled citizens to move and work in Italy. After the crisis, a minority of experts and politicians, especially those with an academic background, assuming a high degree of return or circularity of the current outflows have tried to frame the ‘Italians abroad’ question mainly as an opportunity and not necessarily as a problem, a potential occasion to further develop the labour force’s human capital, improve the balance of trade and of payments, and a chance to transform the ‘brain drain’ into a ‘brain return’ (ISPI 2012).