[82] The pre-launch occurred on November 18, 2011, the date that marked the start of production of the documentary. Un documentario intimo basato sull’esperienza del duo di design italo-tedesco Andrea Zambelli e Nat Wilms durante il loro programma di Artisti in Residenza di tre mesi a San Paolo, Brasile. Still, between 1820 and 1876, 350,117 immigrants entered Brazil. Also, if they are extrapolations of actual data on the number of immigrants, the calculations are not explained anywhere. [61], As happened with several other countries in the Americas, such as the United States, which received immigration from many countries, Brazil quickly became a melting pot of races and nationalities, but being peculiar in the sense of having the highest degree of intermarriage in the world. Although progress appears underway, the Brazilian government must take more secure action to ensure that conditions within these Brazilian slums improve further. The focus shifted to culturally assimilating immigrants and "whitening" the population. From 1914 to 1918, due to World War I, the entry of immigrants of all nationalities decreased. [63][64][65][66] Small southern Brazilian towns, such as Nova Veneza, have as much as 95% of their population of Italian descent. Brazilian demographers have long discussed the demographical impact of the wave of emigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 0 . About 75% of the immigrants were Latin Europeans, particularly from three major sources: Italy, Portugal and Spain. Looking for a local office ? Jair Messias Bolsonaro (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒaˈiʁ meˈsi.ɐz bowsoˈnaɾu, ʒaˈiɾ -]; born 21 March 1955) is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer who is the 38th president of Brazil. [62], Nowadays, it's possible to find millions of descendants of Italians, from the southeastern state of Minas Gerais to the southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul, with the majority living in the state of São Paulo (15.9 million)[63] and the highest percentage in the southeastern state of Espírito Santo (60–75%). The second is based on the work of Arthur Neiva, who supposes the return rate for Brazil was higher than that of the United States (30%) but lower than that of Argentina (47%). It was mainly because Southern Brazil had a small population, vulnerable to attacks by Argentina and the Kaingang Indians. Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign peoples to reside permanently. [71][72] Since then, other municipalities attempt to co-officialese other languages. With over 600 Shipping agencies all over the world, there is always a CMA CGM agency or office to guide you and a Vessel to carry your goods to their destination. It should not be confused with the colonisation of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves.. Drug trafficking is common, with most members being young male teenagers, who are four-fifths more likely to die before age 21, Joe Griffin of The Guardian reports. 1 talking about this. Lowrie reports that as much as 40% of the São Paulo high-class society mixed with an immigrant within the next three generations. [29] By mid-2019, over 168,000 Venezuelans were living in Brazil. Nevertheless, an Immigrant's Hostel (Hospedaria dos Imigrantes) was built in 1886 in São Paulo, and quick admittance and recording routines for the throngs of immigrants arriving by ship at the seaports of Vitória, Rio de Janeiro, Santos, Paranaguá, Florianópolis and Porto Alegre were established. On the other hand, in 1998, the IBGE, within its preparation for the 2000 Census, experimentally introduced a question about "origem" (origin/ancestry) in its "Pesquisa Mensal de Emprego" (Monthly Employment Research), in order to test the viability of introducing that variable in the Census[55]:3 (the IBGE ended by deciding against the inclusion of questions about it in the Census). In these places, it is possible to feel more intensely the impact of the immigration, as many of these towns are still predominantly settled by a single ethnic group. Thus the paulista oligarchy sought to attract new workers from abroad, by passing provincial legislation and pressing the Imperial government to organise immigration.[17][18]. While the majority of the media focus centered on the games themselves, concerns grew about Brazil’s dangerous climate, particularly in regard to the country’s slums. Of these, 45.73% were Portuguese, 35.74% of "other nationalities", 12.97% Germans, while Italians and Spanish together did not reach 6%. [10], Immigration properly started with the opening of the Brazilian ports, in 1808. Usually they enter Brazil through Cuiabá, in Mato Grosso, or San Mathias, in Bolivia, which borders Caceres, Mato Grosso and Corumbá, in Mato Grosso do Sul. In southern Brazil, the immigrants settled in colônias (colonies), which were rural areas, composed of many small farms, settled by the families. From 1500, when the Portuguese reached Brazil, until its independence in 1822, from 500,000 to 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, 600,000 of whom arrived in the 18th century alone. Un documentario intimo basato sull’esperienza del duo di design italo-tedesco Andrea Zambelli e Nat Wilms durante il loro programma di Artisti in Residenza di tre mesi a San Paolo, Brasile. Arriving in larger numbers than Germans, in the 1870s, groups of Italians started settling northeast Rio Grande do Sul. Article 12. Evidently, the older the immigration, higher should be the descendant/immigrant relation—but, as the table shows, the embassy figures would place the Arab descendant/immigrant relation first—and, in fact, more than three times higher than that of the Germans. Other regions, notedly the Northeast, on the contrary, faced economic retraction, and were, consequently, able to dispense workforce. The Portuguese remained the most significant group, with 39.35%, The participation of the Japanese increased, becoming the second most important group, with 12.79%. However, Portugal had a small population to develop the exploitation of Brazil. Between 1974 and 1980 Brazil also received almost 400 Portuguese settler families fleeing Angola or Mozambique as well as some 1,000 exiles from Portugal proper, many of them serving officers of the Portuguese Military or Police, fleeing post-Carnation Revolution Portugal because of their association with the former regime[21][verification needed], During the 1990s Brazil received small numbers of immigrants from the former republics of Yugoslavia, from Afghanistan and West Africa (mostly Angolans). III - have provided or can provide relevant services to Brazil, in the opinion of the Minister of Justice of Brazil; IV - commend themselves by their professional, scientific or artistic; or. Un invito della galleria Firma Casa per una mostra in loco diventa il pretesto di … The first settlers came from Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Hannover. Clevelário, then, besides extending the calculations up to 1980, remade them, reaching somewhat different conclusions. People of more than 70 different nationalities were recorded. According to the Census of 1872, there were 9,930,478 people in Brazil, of which 3,787,289 (38.14%) Whites, 3,380,172 (34.04%) Pardos, 1.954.452 (19.68%) Blacks, and 386,955 (3.90%) Caboclos. They integrated into the local tribes, using their superior technology to attain privileged positions among them. The total number of immigrants per year averaged 6,000. However, by 1870 the paulista elite came to realise that the Northeastern slaveholders were in fact being able to obtain financial compensation for their slaves, or, in practice, an abolition with compensation. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, LGBT immigration equality by country or territory, "The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages", "Índios do Brasil - história, cultura, sociedade indígena, arte, tribos", "[The role of international migration on the evolution of the Brazilian population (1872 to 1972)]", "Revista de Saúde Pública - The role of international migration on the evolution of the Brazilian population (1872 to 1972)", "RS VIRTUAL - O Rio Grande do Sul na Internet", Café atrai imigrante europeu para o Brasil - 22/02/2005 - Resumos | História do Brasil, "Fim da escravido gera medidas de apoio imigrao no Brasil - 16/02/2005 - Resumos - Histria do Brasil", RIOS, Roger Raupp. [7] This should not be taken as meaning that the population of Brazil before independence was mainly Black: the average survival of an African slave in Brazil was of merely seven years after arrival,[8] implying extremely high mortality rates. In 1859, Prussia prohibited emigration to Brazil. This entailed the replacement of the international slave trade by an internal or interprovincial slave trade, in which Northeastern slaves were sold in large numbers to the Southeast. Considering hypothesis 4 (no return at all), the Population of Immigrant origin would be of 29,348,423 people, or 24.66% of the total population. Ancestors of a Brazilian national or of a permanent resident of Brazil; Siblings of a Brazilian citizen or of a permanent resident of Brazil, if orphan, single and under 18 years of age; Minor children, grandchildren or great-grandchildren of a Brazilian citizen or of a permanent resident of Brazil. Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the formation, structure and history of the population in Brazil, influencing culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc. The São Paulo site alone processed more than 2.5 million immigrants in its almost 100 years of continuous operation. While in São Paulo the Italians predominated, in the city of Rio de Janeiro the Portuguese remained as the main group. Similar to Germans, they were also attracted to develop small familiar farming production. If they can prove they are eligible for a permanent residence permit. Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the composition, structure and history of human population in Brazil, with all its attending factors and consequences in culture, economy, education, racial issues. 1820–1876: small number of immigrants (about 6,000 per year), predominance of Portuguese (45.73%), with significant numbers of Germans (12.97%); 1877–1903: large number of immigrants (about 71,000 per year), predominance of Italians (58.49%); 1904–1930: large number of immigrants (about 79,000 per year), predominance of the Portuguese (36.97%); 1931–1963: declining number of immigrants (about 33,500 per year), predominance of the Portuguese (38.45%). Vik Muniz: Surfaces Rena Branstein Gallery, San Francisco, CA Exhibition date are TBA... Vik Muniz: Pictures of Paint and Museum of Ashes. Ninety days prior to the expiration of the temporary residence permit, they must aver their self-sufficiency in Brazil. A retired person, 60 years of age or older, accompanied by up to two dependents, and able to transfer monthly, in accordance with the laws of the country of origin, the amount equivalent to US$2,000. [19], With the radicalisation of the political situation in Europe, the end of the demographic crisis, the decadence of coffee culture, the Revolution of 1930 and the consequent rise of a nationalist government, immigration to Brazil was significantly reduced. Consequently, while immigration until 1871 was focused on establishing communities of landowners, during this period, while this older process continued, immigrants were more and more attracted to the coffee plantations of São Paulo, where they became employees or were allowed to cultivate small tracts of land in exchange for their work in the coffee crop. These immigrants were attracted to work as small farmers in the region of São Leopoldo. Only ten years after receiving a permanent residence permit may be eligible for naturalization to be Brazilian.[37]. Since the 1980s, the Brazilian government has offered amnesty to foreigners in irregular situations[35] in four different campaigns, benefiting tens of thousands of foreigners living in Brazil. From 1931 to 1963, 1,106,404 immigrants entered Brazil. During this period, immigration was much more intense: large numbers of Europeans, especially Italians, started to be brought to the country to work in the harvest of coffee. V - to be owner in Brazil, real estate, whose value is equal to at least a thousand times the greatest value of reference, or be provided with industrial funds of equal value, or hold quota shares or amount of paid-in least identical in commercial or civil society, aimed principally and permanently, the operation of industrial or agricultural activities. Table 3, "A participação da imigração na formação da população brasileira", "Fora de foco: diversidade e identidade étnicas no Brasil", O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira (1872 a 1972), Negotiating national identity: immigrants, minorities, and the struggle for ethnicity in Brazil, Another arabesque: Syrian-Lebanese ethnicity in neoliberal Brazil, Fora de foco: diversidade e identidades étnicas no Brasil, "Imigração italiana por Estados e Regiões do Brasil (in Portuguese)", Espírito Santo, lo stato più veneto del Brasile (in Italian), Consulado italiano vai abrir dois escritórios em Vitória para agilizar pedidos de cidadania (in Portuguese), Sobre a composição étnica da população capixaba (in Portuguese), "AmericanHeritage.com / The Deepest South", "Vila Pavão, Uma Pomerânia no norte do Espírito Santo", "Pomerode institui língua alemã como co-oficial no Município", "Lei municipal oficializa línguas indígenas em São Gabriel da Cachoeira", "Na Babel brasileira, português é 2ª língua - Flávia Martin e Vitor Moreno, enviados especiais a Sâo Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM)],", "Rotary apresenta ações na Câmara. The semi-dependent group: composed of former. Today, there are about 1,000 favelas in Rio and 1,600 in São Paulo. Most of the Poles immigrated to Brazil with German, Russian or Austro-Hungarian/Austrian passports, the Ukrainians with Austrian passports and the Hungarians with Romanian passports. After independence from Portugal, the Brazilian Empire focused on the occupation of the provinces of Southern Brazil. Approximately six percent of Brazil’s population lives in favelas. “The Borgen Project is an incredible nonprofit organization that is addressing poverty and hunger and working towards ending them.” [54] During the 1900–1940 period, Italian immigration was greatly reduced, due to the Prinetti decree, forbidding subsidized emigration to Brazil in 1902, then to the Italian war effort of 1915–1918. In 1872, after the arrival of about 350,000 mostly European immigrants and about 1,150,000 Africans forcibly brought to Brazil as slaves, the first Brazilian Census counted 9,930,478 people in Brazil, of which 3,787,289 (38.14%) Whites, 3,380,172 (34.04%) "pardos", 1.954.452 (19.68%) Blacks, and 386,955 (3.90%) "caboclos". Mortara concluded that only about 15% of the demographic growth of Brazil, from 1840 and 1940 was due to immigration, and that the population of immigrant origin was of 16% of the total population of Brazil.[52]. [20] From 1931 to 1963, 1,106,404 immigrants entered Brazil. Clevelário, thence, supposed four different hypothesis concerning the return rates. In the 100 years from 1872–1972 at least 5.35 million immigrants came to Brazil, of whom 31% were Portuguese, 30% Italian, 13% Spanish, 5% Japanese, 4% German and 16% of other unspecified nationalities.[6]. in sintesi la terza giornata, gli ospiti e i registi che hanno presentato le pellicole. :57, Clevelário's conclusions are as following: considering hypothesis 1 (unrealistically low), the Population of Immigrant Origin in 1980 would be of 14,730,710 people, or 12.38% of the total population. This page was last edited on 4 November 2020, at 14:29. The rights inherent to Brazilians shall be attributed to Portuguese citizens with permanent residence in Brazil, if there is reciprocity in favour of Brazilians, except in the cases stated in this Constitution. This was mainly because of complaints that Germans were being exploited in the coffee plantations of São Paulo. The Portuguese constituted 38% of entries, followed by Spaniards with 22%. Spaniards started arriving about the same time as the Italians, but came in more steady pace, which means that, in average, they represent a more recent immigration. Please sign in or register your account, Cinema Nascosto al Teatro Lirico di Milano, L’Auditorium del Museo Nazionale della Scienza e della Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci di Milano: una breve storia, Nel segno di Leonardo: quando il museo non è solo un museo, ADI, Associazione per il Disegno Industriale, MIBACT – Ministero dei beni e delle attività culturali e del turismo, Ordine e Fondazione dell'Ordine degli architetti, P.P.C della provincia di Milano. In consequence of the Prinetti Decree of 1902, that forbade subsidised emigration to Brazil, Italian immigration had, at this stage, a drastic reduction: their average annual entries from 1887 to 1903 was 58,000. Part of this category was composed of immigrants from Poland, Russia and Romania, who immigrated probably by political issues, and part by Syrian and Lebanese peoples. [38] Some areas of the city remained almost exclusively settled by Italians until the arrival of waves of migrants from other parts of Brazil, particularly from the Northeast, starting in the late 1920s. Health risks may stem from overcrowding, pollution and a lack of waste disposal systems. [83], The Brazilian population before immigration, Refugees in Brazil in 2018 by nationalities, Brazilian states with linguistic heritages officially approved statewide, Municipalities that have co-official indigenous languages, Municipalities that have co-official allochthonous languages, Municipalities that have co-official Talian language (, Municipalities that have co-official East Pomeranian language, Municipalities that have co-official language Riograndenser Hunsrückisch language, Municipalities in which the teaching of the German language is mandatory, Municipalities in which the teaching of the Italian language is mandatory. The White population grew faster than the non-White population due to the subsidized immigration of Europeans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1830 a bill was passed forbidding the Imperial government from spending money with the settlement of immigrants, which stalled immigration until 1834, when the provincial governments were charged with promoting immigration.[12]. A Japanese-language newspaper, the São Paulo Shinbun, had been published in the city of São Paulo since 1946, still printing paper editions until January 2019. In the case of more than two dependents, the applicant must transfer the amount equivalent to US$1,000 for each additional dependent. The Germans had been settling Rio Grande do Sul since 1824. The first, that he deems unrealistic high, is that 50% of the immigrants to Brazil returned to their countries of origin. The last hypothesis, also admittedly unrealistic is that of a 0% rate of return, which is known to be false. What follows is a poetic vision that moves between a megalopolis rich in contrast and the atmosphere of a rustic carpenter workshop where the duo reveals the working process of their unique furnitures. It is easy to see that the results of this research are widely incompatible with the claims made by embassies and commercial associations: The embassy figures are also hardly compatible with the known data for immigration. The rest came from different parts of Europe, the Middle East and Japan. This, however, is probably due to the concentration of Nikkeis in São Paulo, as opposed to a less concentrated distribution of "Arab Brazilians", who are present in considerable numbers in regions not counted by the PMEs—notably the Northern Region, the West of Paraná State, and Southern Rio Grande do Sul. By 1890, the non-White population was reduced to 47% and the Amerindian to 9%. They may opt to apply for citizenship after a probation period of residency in order to obtain these rights. Officially, amnesty intends to cut down on illegal activity and human rights violations, particularly with Bolivians in São Paulo. Although Mortara himself considered this hypothesis underestimated, Clevelário thinks it is closest to reality. Since proper housing was too expensive for many immigrants, they turned to the poor, yet cheap, conditions favelas provided on the outskirts of Brazil’s major cities, such as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Life expectancy within favelas is approximately. Sole Paragraph. It should not be confused with the colonisation of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves. During these two years, they must not exceed 90 consecutive days spent abroad. Formed by a Brazilian and other people from other country: The high group: composed of graduated people, mainly by Brazilians born to Brazilian parents, who were related to the high-class farmers or other people with privileges. In addition, small businesses are making progress within their communities, most recently in the area of tourism. Paragraph 2. From 1904 to 1930, 2,142,781 immigrants came to Brazil—making an annual average of 79,000 people. During the 1970s Brazil received about 32,000 Lebanese immigrants escaping the civil war, as well as smaller numbers of Palestinians and Syrians. Poor living conditions within favelas often breed crime. [needs update] Though the large majority of immigrants live in São Paulo, other cases were based largely in Rio de Janeiro and Paraná. Elected in 2018 as a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party before cutting ties with them, he has been in office since 1 January 2019. Throughout its history, Brazil has always been a recipient of immigrants, but this began to gain importance in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century when the country received massive immigration from Europe, the Middle East, and Japan, which left lasting marks on demography, culture, language and the economy of Brazil. They received land, seed, livestock and other items to develop. [13], The disproportionally fast growth of the White population, due to mass immigration, lasted up to 1940, when its proportion in the Brazilian population peaked at 63.5%. However, the Brazilian high class was more intolerant, with most of them marrying other members of the elite. Below are facts about Brazilian slums. As a result of the great internal migration of people in Rio Grande do Sul, Germans and second generation descendants started to move to other areas of the Province. In 1850, Brazil declared the end of the slave trade. The Brazilian Censuses do not ask questions about "ethnic origin", so there are no systematically comparable data about the impact of immigration. [43], Thousands of White Americans from the Southern United States (including relatives of former president Jimmy Carter), known as Confederados, fled to Brazil after the American Civil War, where they founded two cities,[67] Americana and Santa Bárbara d'Oeste. Although UPPs originally heightened safety when initially introduced in 2008, they have recently been the center of much controversy, as civilian deaths have increased as a result of, Despite these poor conditions, life in favelas is beginning to improve. By showing that it is a center for immigrants in the Western Hemisphere, particularly in South America, and more importantly, that it is supposedly a benevolent and welcoming country for immigrants, it helps Brazil's international public image. Both subgroups included a number of Jewish immigrants, who arrived in the 1920s. [30], The data are from the months of January to April of the same year. An invitation by the gallery Firma Casa for an on-site solo show becomes the pretext for an introspective journey into Brazilian reality. [77][78][79][80], Also in production is the documentary video Brasil Talian,[81] with directed and written by André Costantin and executive producer of the historian Fernando Roveda. Particularly from 1932 to 1935 immigrants from Japan constituted 30% of total admissions.[13]. This research interviewed about 90,000 people in six metropolitan regions (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Recife). [53] Clevelário believes the most probable number to be close to 18%, higher than Mortara's previous estimate of 1947.:Abstract, p. 71 Considering hypothesis 2 (based on Neiva), it would be of 17,609,052 people, or 14.60% of the total population. Paragraph 1. [36], Those who would benefit from the amnesty, following publication of the law in the Brazilian Official Gazette in July 2009, have up to 180 days after the time of their temporary residence permit (valid for 2 years) to apply. Brazil's receiving structure, legislation and settlement policies for immigrants were much less organized than in Canada and the United States at the time. The third hypothesis is taken from Mortara, who postulates a rate of 20% for the 19th century, 35% for the first two decades of the 20th century, and 25% for 1920 on. [56] To this day, it remains the only actual published survey about the immigrant origin of Brazilians. [4] During the three decades afterwards, the country remained sparsely inhabited by Europeans. According to historian Samuel H. Lowrie, in the early 20th century the society of São Paulo was divided in three classes:[38]. Many houses now have access to new technologies, such as television and the Internet. Recenseamento do Brasil realizado em 1 de Setembro de 1920, Volume 4, Primeira Parte: População do Brasil por Estados, municípios e distritos, segundo o sexo, o estado civil e a nacionalidade - Disponível em: Mortara, Giorgio. [22] Recent immigration is mainly constituted by Chinese and Koreans and, in a smaller degree, by Argentines and other Latin American immigrants.[23]. Before 1871, the number of immigrants rarely exceeded two or three thousand people a year. Arabs only started to arrive in considerable numbers about 1890, making them the second most recent immigration, after the Japanese, who started to arrive in 1908. In 1812, settlers from the Azores were brought to Espírito Santo and in 1819, Swiss to Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro. – The Huffington Post, https://borgenproject.org/wp-content/uploads/The_Borgen_Project_Logo_small.jpg, The common term for a Brazilian slum is a. Favelas grew as migration increased. In the last quarter of the 19th century, the entry of immigrants in Brazil grew strongly. The major work visas concessions were granted for citizens of the United States and the United Kingdom. In general, it is considered that people who entered Brazil up to 1822, the year of independence, were colonizers. Gangs not only initiate wars amongst each other in Brazilian slums, but against police. Vik Muniz was born in São Paulo, Brazil but currently works in both New York City and Rio de Janeiro. The figures for Germans, Italians, Spaniards, and Japanese from 1820 to August 31, 1972, can be found in Maria Stella Ferreira Levy. Counting from 1872 (year of the first census) by the year 2000, Brazil received about 6 million immigrants. The states of Santa Catarina[73][74][75] and Rio Grande do Sul have Talian officially approved as a heritage language in these states,[76] and Espírito Santo has the East Pomeranian dialect, along with the German language, such as cultural heritage state. The breakdown by country/continent is the following: 16,881 Bolivians, 5,492 Chinese, 4,642 Peruvians, 4,135 Paraguayans, 2,700 Africans (including North Africa), 2,390 Europeans, 1,129 Koreans, 469 Argentines, 274 U.S. citizens, 186 Cubans. The largest refugee ancestries were Angolan (1,688), Colombian (583), Congolese (402), Liberian (259), and Iraqi (197). FEIBEMO divulga cultura italiana", "Fóruns sobre o Talian - Eventos comemoram os 134 anos da imigração italiana", "Aprovado projeto que declara o Talian como patrimônio do RS]", "Plenário aprova em segundo turno a PEC do patrimônio", "ALEES - PEC que trata do patrimônio cultural retorna ao Plenário", "Marisa busca apoio para documentário sobre cultura italiana produzido em Antonio Prado", "ALEES - PEC que trata do patrimnio cultural retorna ao Plenrio - Síntese", http://titus.uni-frankfurt.de/didact/karten/germ/deutdin.htm, http://www.lerncafe.de/aus-der-welt-1142/articles/pommern-in-brasilien.html, Aprovado projeto que declara o Talian como patrimônio do RS, "Lei municipal oficializa línguas indígenas em São Gabriel da Cachoeira]", "Na Babel brasileira, português é 2ª língua - Flávia Martin e Vitor Moreno, enviados especiais a Sâo Gabriel da Cachoeira (AM)]", "Município do MS adota o guarani como língua oficial]", "Paranhos poderá ter a co-oficialização de uma língua Indígena]", Município de Roraima co-oficializa línguas indígenas Macuxi e Wapixana, "Tocantínia passa a ter Akwê Xerente como língua co-oficial e recebe Centro de Educação Indígena", "Vereadores aprovam o talian como língua co-oficial do município", "A escolarização entre descendentes pomeranos em Domingos Martins", Município de Itarana participa de ações do Inventário da Língua Pomerana, «Lei Municipal nº 1.195/2016 de Itarana/ES», "No Brasil, pomeranos buscam uma cultura que se perde", "Lei dispõe sobre a cooficialização da língua pomerana no município de Santa maria de Jetibá, Estado do Espírito Santo", "Vila Pavão, Uma Pomerânia no norte do Espirito Santo", "Descendentes de etnia germânica vivem isolados em área rural de Minas", "Pomeranos em busca de recursos federais", "Resistência cultural - Imigrantes que buscaram no Brasil melhores condições de vida, ficaram isolados e sem apoio do poder público", "Vereadores propõem ensino da língua pomerana nas escolas do município", "Ontem e hoje : percurso linguistico dos pomeranos de Espigão D'Oeste-RO", "Sessão Solene em homenagem a Comunidade Pomerana", "Percurso linguistico dos pomeranos de Espigão D Oeste-RO]", "Comunidade Pomerana realiza sua tradicional festa folclórica", Cooficialização da língua alemã em Antônio Carlos, "Vereadores de Treze Tílias se reuniram ontem", "A sala de aula de alemão para falantes de dialeto: realidades e mitos", "Brasil: dialeto do baixo-alemão torna-se segunda língua oficial de cidade gaúcha", "dzeitrs: Apresentando... Santa Maria do Herval (RS)", "Dialetos Hunsrik e Talian na ofensiva no Sul] -, "Câmara Municipal de Vereadores de Nova Petrópolis", Em Nova Petrópolis 100% da população é alfabetizada, "Língua italiana na rede municipal de ensino", "Câmara Municipal de Venda Nova do Imigrante", "LEI Nº 3018/2003 - 02.10.03 - Dispõe sobre a oficialização de aulas de língua italiana nas escolas da Rede Municipal de Ensino", "Lei Ordinária nº 3018/2003 de Francisco Beltrão, dispõe sobre a oficialização de aulas de língua italiana nas escolas", "Elaboração de Projeto de Lei para o ensino obrigatório da língua italiana nas escolas municipais", "Língua italiana em Antônio Prado, Italiano integra currículo escolar", "Lei 3113/08 - Lei nº 3113 de 14 de agosto de 2008", "Prefeitura Municipal de Brusque - Secretaria de Educao esclarece a situao sobre o Ensino da Lngua Italiana", "Lei 4159/01 - Lei nº 4159 de 29 de maio de 2001", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Immigration_to_Brazil&oldid=987039773, Articles with dead external links from April 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles containing Portuguese-language text, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2011, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2010, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 15,558 immigrants; majority from Portugal, Brazilians who were born to a Portuguese father or mother, Portuguese, post-independence (1837–1968), Arrival of settlers, slaves, and immigrants, by origin, periods from 1500 to 1933.

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