Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princesse de L., et la prison de la Force, Paris 1868; G. Bertin, Madame de L. d’après des documents inédits, Paris 1888 (ma si veda la 2ª ed., Paris 1894); D. Carutti, Lo sposalizio e l’assassinio di M. T. di S.-C., principessa di L. (1767-1792), in Miscellanea di storia italiana, s. 3, 1898, t. 5 (36), pp. Nei primi giorni di settembre del 1792 a Parigi e in altre città francesi ebbero luogo i "massacri di settembre" che segnarono l'inizio del Regime del Terrore. 159, 389; P. Fassy, Episodes de l’histoire de Paris sous la Terreur. Her aunts included, Polyxena of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, the wife of Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia (Victor Amadeus III was her first cousin) and Caroline, Princess of Condé and wife of Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon. Nel frattempo, Luigi XV era divenuto vedovo. [2] In Paris, the Chronique de Paris reported of her departure and it was widely believed that she had gone to England for a diplomatic mission on behalf of the queen. [16], After this, the head and the corpse was taken by the crowd to the Palais Royal, where the Duke of Orléans and his lover Marguerite Françoise de Buffon were entertaining a party of Englishmen for supper. Riprese inoltre le sue attività caritatevoli e il 12 febbraio 1777 aderì alla massoneria nella loggia di adozione La Candeur, della quale il 18 gennaio 1780 divenne Maestra venerabile[1]. Schmidt, Lettres inédites de la princesse de L., in La Révolution française. Figlia (n. 1756 - m. forse Klagenfurt 1805) di Vittorio Amedeo III di Savoia e di Maria Antonietta di Spagna, sposò nel 1773 il conte di Artois (il futuro Carlo X), sul quale però non ebbe alcuna influenza. She engaged in her close friendship with her own favorite lady-in-waiting Countess Étiennette d'Amblimont de Lâge de Volude, as well as her charity and her interest in the Freemasons. There is, however, nothing to indicate that she was exposed to any sexual mutilations or atrocities, which was widely alleged in the sensationalist stories surrounding her infamous death. Il 17 gennaio 1767 Maria Teresa Luisa sposò quindi il principe di Lamballe, nipote del conte di Tolosa, a sua volta figlio di Luigi XIV e di Madame de Montespan, uno dei principi più ricchi d'Europa. She agreed to take the oath to liberty but refused to denounce the king, queen and monarchy. Titolo attribuito alla sovrana di un principato, alla figlia di un sovrano o di una sovrana regnante, alla moglie o alla figlia di un principe: le principessa di casa Savoia; la p. Colonna. The office aroused great envy and insulted a great number of people at court because of the precedence in rank it gave. This appointment was controversial: the office had been vacant for over thirty years because the position was expensive, superfluous and gave far too much power and influence to the bearer, giving her rank and power over all other ladies-in-waiting and requiring all orders given by any other female office holder to be confirmed by her before it could be carried out, and Lamballe, though of sufficient rank to be appointed, was regarded too young, which would offend those placed under her, but the queen regarded it a just reward for her friend.[2]. On 31 January 1767, she was married by proxy to Louis Alexandre de Bourbon-Penthièvre, Prince of Lamballe, grandson of Louis XIV's legitimised son, Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse, and the only surviving son of Louis de Bourbon-Toulouse, Duke of Penthièvre. 2. fig. [20][21], The generations start from the children of, Significant civil and political events by year, Williams, Hugh Noel, Madame Dubarry, Beijer, Stockholm, 1905. La drammatica morte di Maria Teresa divenne presto oggetto di un’ampia pubblicistica, che si diffuse già alla fine del 1792, ma che trovò il suo vero inizio con l’Histoire du clergé pendant la Révolution française di Augustin Barruel (I, Londres, 1793, pp. She was killed in the massacres of September 1792 during the French Revolution. – Nacque a Torino l’8 settembre 1749, quarta figlia del principe Luigi Vittorio di Savoia Carignano (1721-1778) e di Cristina Enrichetta d’Assia-Rheinfels-Rothemburg (1717-1778). ', fell back, but was pulled out into the front of the yard by the two guards. Come termine... Marìa. [11][12], There are many different versions of the exact manner of her death,[2] which attracted great attention and was used in propaganda for many years after the revolution, during which it was embellished and exaggerated. During her first year as queen, Marie Antoinette reportedly said to Louis XVI, who himself was very approving of her friendship with Lamballe: "Ah, sire, the Princesse de Lamballe's friendship is the charm of my life. '[2] One of the killers, who were tried years later, described her as 'a little lady dressed in white', standing for a moment alone. A Vienna si temette che Maria Teresa usasse la sua posizione per orientare verso i Savoia le scelte politiche dei sovrani. She lived at the Hôtel de Toulouse in Paris and at the Château de Rambouillet. [2] At this point, Lamballe and her sister-in-law joined in with the Parliament to petition on behalf of the duke of Orléans, who was exiled. Standing during the whole of that long scène, leaning upon the Queen's chair, she seemed only occupied with the dangers of that unhappy princess without regarding her own."[2]. Il 2 febbraio la coppia arrivò a Parigi e si stabilì all’Hotel de Toulouse, residenza del duca di Penthièvre. Discreta, religiosa e poco amante dei pettegolezzi, essa costituiva un ideale contrappunto per la regina, di cui divenne compagna inseparabile e fidata confidente. Royalist accounts of the incident claimed her body was displayed on the street for a full day, but this is not likely, as the official protocols explicitly states that it was brought to the authorities immediately after her death. [2] However, in popular anti-monarchist propaganda of the time, she was regularly portrayed in pornographic pamphlets, showing her as the Queen's lesbian lover to undermine the public image of the monarchy. La nomina giunse, infatti, il 16 settembre 1775, trasformando la giovane piemontese nella prima dama della corte di Francia. In May 1771, she went to Fontainebleau, and was there presented by the king to her cousin, the future Countess of Provence, attending the supper after. Queste carte chiamavano in causa un certo numero di persone che avevano effettivamente ricevuto denaro dalla Corte e che si sentirono all'improvviso minacciate da testimoni quali l'Intendente della Lista civile Arnaud de La Porte o dalla principessa di Lamballe.[3]. 290-293), una delle prime opere a insistere sullo scempio fatto del cadavere della principessa. [2] The empress Maria Theresa somewhat disliked the attachment, because she disliked favorites and intimate friends of royalty in general, though the princesse de Lamballe was because of her rank regarded as an acceptable choice, if such an intimate friend was needed. Maria Teresa Luisa di Savoia (Torino, 8 settembre 1749 – Parigi, 3 settembre 1792), nota soprattutto con il titolo di principessa di Lamballe, fu membro del ramo cadetto di Casa Savoia ed è conosciuta soprattutto in virtù dell'amicizia intima senza interessi personali con la regina di Francia Maria Antonietta. As the king held his levées and couchers, the queen held a card party every Sunday and Tuesday, and held a court reception on Sundays and Thursdays before attending mass and dining in public with the king, as well as giving audience to the foreign envoys and the official deputations each week; all events in which Lamballe, in her office of superintendent, participated, being always seen at the queen's side both in public as well as in private. SAVOIA CARIGNANO, Maria Teresa, principessa di Lamballe. Marie Thérèse was by nature reserved and, at court, she had the reputation of being a prude. Inoltre le impediva di esser sempre presso la regina, la quale iniziò a cercare altrove quelle continue attenzioni che la principessa non poteva più offrirle. 135-137). [1] Not much is known of her childhood.[2]. I rapporti fra le due non tornarono a essere subito buoni, soprattutto per l’odio che ormai la regina provava verso il duca d’Orléans, cui restava invece legata Maria Teresa. When the door was opened and she was exposed to the sight of bloody corpses in the yard, she reportedly cried 'Fi horreur!' [9] They were removed from the Temple at the same time as two valets and three female servants, as it was decided that the family should not be allowed to keep their retainers. [2] La principessa avrebbe quindi voluto lasciare la corte, ma Penthièvre la invitò a rimanere accanto a Maria Antonietta, sempre più sola dopo la fuga dei suoi amici d’un tempo. Elle est établie pour sa vie ici, ainsi que son frère» (Maria Theresia und Marie Antoinette..., 1866, p. 159). Some reports state that the head was taken to a barber in order to dress the hair to make it instantly recognizable,[14] though this has been contested. Nel 1789 scoppiò la Rivoluzione e la regina cominciò a rendersi conto degli errori commessi dalla monarchia. In the Tuileries, the ritual court entertainments and representational life was to some level reinstated. On 7 October she was informed of the events of the Revolution, and immediately joined the Royal Family to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, where she reassumed the duties of her office. [2] "[2] '[2], The agents of her father-in-law, who had been tasked with acquiring her remains and having them temporarily buried until they could be interred in Dreux, reportedly mixed in with the crowd in order to be able to gain possession of it. La principessa partecipò molto alle attività della loggia e tre anni dopo, il 10 gennaio 1781, fu posta a capo dell’intera massoneria femminile francese come grand maîtresse della Mère Loge Ecossaise. Tenuto dal padre lontano dagli uffici pubblici, salito al trono (1773), licenziò i migliori ministri di Carlo Emanuele (tra cui G. L. Bogino) e abbandonò la precedente opera riformatrice della monarchia sabauda, ... Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana fondata da Giovanni Treccani S.p.A. © Tutti i diritti riservati. ",[2] after which a table was pulled before her to protect her from the mob. Nel 1791 la regina informò la principessa di Lamballe dell'intenzione di fuggire e di lasciare la Francia. I processi di Luigi XVI e Maria Antonietta (1793), SAVOIA CARIGNANO, Maria Teresa, principessa di Lamballe, Opere di Maria Teresa Luisa di Savoia-Carignano, Maria Teresa Luisa di Savoia Principessa di Lamballe. [2] Lamballe aroused the dislike of Mayor Pétion, who objected to the queen attending supper in Lamballe's apartment, and widespread rumors claimed that the rooms of Lamballe at the Tuileries were the meeting place of an 'Austrian Committee' plotting to encourage the invasion of France, a second St. Bartholomew's Day massacre and the destruction of the Revolution. Nei nove mesi successivi Maria Teresa fu l’unica figura di corte di cui la regina potesse disporre. [2], On 18 September 1775, following the ascension of her husband to the throne in May 1774, Queen Marie Antoinette appointed Marie Thérèse "Superintendent of the Queen's Household", the highest rank possible for a lady-in-waiting at Versailles. – 1. Questo «Comitato austriaco» aveva permesso di influire nelle delibere dei comitati rivoluzionari, di riconciliare al re certi scrittori e di far ritardare il voto sul decreto di decadenza. [2] She inherited her husband's considerable fortune, making her wealthy in her own right. L’italiana Lamballe costituiva, così, l’altro elemento di una coppia di straniere che, anche attraverso la (presunta) libertà sessuale, finiva per assumere, a livello non solo simbolico, l’immagine del vero potere. Letture che non furono estranee alla sua adesione alla massoneria, nella quale ella trovò uno spazio adatto alla sua vocazione filantropica. Il 12 febbraio 1777 entrò nella loggia Saint Jean de la Candeur, fondata due anni prima dalla duchessa di Borbone. The portraiture, patronage and politics of a royal favourite at the court of Marie-Antoinette, Oxford 2016; G. Walton, Marie Antoinette’s confidante: The rise and fall of the princesse de L., Barnsley 2016. di Andrea Merlotti - Ma quest'ultima, preoccupata per la sorte della regina, fece testamento, rientrò in patria e tornò al seguito della regina alle Tuileries. Il progetto, però, non andò in porto. Outside of her formal duties, however, she was often absent from court, attending to the bad health of both herself and her father-in-law. On 3 September, de Lamballe and de Tourzel were taken out to a courtyard with other prisoners waiting to be taken to the tribunal. Ciò spiega perché quel rapporto divenne presto oggetto di un’ampia pamphlettistisca con chiari scopi politici. [2] During the famous Affair of the Diamond Necklace, Lamballe was seen in an unsuccessful attempt to visit the imprisoned Jeanne de la Motte at La Salpetriere; the purpose of this visit is unknown, but it created widespread rumors at the time.[2]. [7] She also accompanied them from the Legislative Assembly to the Feuillant convent, and from there to the Temple. [13] In questa occasione la principessa di Lamballe fu presentata come principessa del sangue alla futura regina, alla quale fece una favorevole impressione per i suoi modi garbati e distinti. In November 1773, another one of her cousins married the third prince, the Count of Artois, and she was present at the birth of the future Louis-Philippe of France in Paris in October 1773. [2], Previously often unwilling to entertain in the queen's name as her office required, during these years she entertained lavishly and widely in her office at the Tuileries, where she hoped to gather loyal nobles to help the queen's cause,[2] and Per due anni Lamballe visse quindi di nuovo accanto a Maria Antonietta, in un quadro via via più drammatico, che si concluse con la fuga a Varennes il 20 giugno 1791. [16] The crowd demanded to be allowed inside the Temple to show the head to Marie Antoinette in person, but the officers of the Temple managed to convince them not to break in to the prison. [4], During the Storming of the Bastille in July 1789 and the outbreak of the French Revolution, the princesse de Lamballe was on a leisure visit in Switzerland with her favorite lady-in-waiting countess de Lâge, and when she returned to France in September, she stayed with her father-in-law in the countryside to nurse him while he was ill, and thus was not present at court during The Women's March on Versailles, which took place on 5 October 1789, when she was with her father-in-law in Aumale.[2]. Appena uscita fuori dalla sala, fu barbaramente assassinata. [2], Back in the Tuileries, Lamballe resumed her office and her work rallying supporters to the queen, investigating the loyalty of the household and writing to the noble émigrées asking them to return to France in the name of the queen. PRINCIPESSA DI LAMBALLE Maria Teresa e Luigi si sposarono per procura il 17 gennaio 1767 a Torino. She reportedly preferred a queen who was young and beautiful but lacked ambition; who could attract and distract her father from state affairs, leaving them to Madame Adélaïde. Rientrata in Francia, riprese la propria attività massonica, facendo di rado ritorno a Versailles, dove la corte della regina era ormai controllata dalla duchessa di Polignac e dalla sua famiglia. [2] In the spring of 1789, Lamballe was present in Versailles to participate in the ceremonies around the Estates General of 1789 in France. Negli anni, la sua salute era stata minata da una grave malattia di nervi, che sembrava non avere cura. Sept morts sous la Terreur, Paris 1997, pp. Se lo avesse sposato, però, Maria Teresa avrebbe perso il rango di principessa del sangue e gli onori che ne derivavano. Anna Marìa d'Orléans duchessa di Savona e regina di Sardegna. Anch’essa straniera, la giovane principessa italiana era stata vista da Maria Antonietta come un’amica naturale, in un ambiente in cui entrambe si sentivano estranee. "[2], After the departure from France of the duchess de Polignac and most of the other of the queen's intimate circle of friends, Marie Antoinette warned Lamballe that she would now in her visible role attract much of the anger among the public toward the favorites of the queen, and that libels circulating openly in Paris would expose her to slander. [2] Some reports, for example, allege that she was raped, and her breasts sliced off in addition to other bodily mutilations. It also gave the enormous salary of 50,000 crowns a year, and because of the condition of the state's economy and the great wealth of Lamballe, she was asked to renounce the salary. [17][18] According to Madame Tussaud, she was ordered to make a death mask. La principessa di Lamballe, una torinese a Versailles Set 17 2014 Curiosità dark e non solo Lugi Vittorio, o Ludovico, IV principe di Savoia Carignano (1721-1778) La stampa rivoluzionaria mise presto in relazione una denuncia lanciata contro di lei dal comitato dell'Assemblea nazionale legislativa: la si rimproverava di aver coordinato o incoraggiato le attività del «Comitato austriaco» e di essere finanziata con i fondi della Lista civile. La figlia Maria Teresa scrisse più avanti: «Fu la prima volta che vidi perdere il controllo a mia madre!». Ostilissimo alla rivoluzione, fu il primo a emigrare, il 17 luglio 1789, e fu il capo della nobiltà fuoruscita. Hardy The princesse de L. A biography, London 1908; R. Arnaud, La princesse de L., d’après des documents inédits, Paris 1911; A. Cabanès, La princesse de L. intime (d’après les confidences de son médecin), Paris 1922; A.-É. [2] Si trasferì poi ad Aix-la-Chapelle, sotto il nome di contessa d’Amboise, e vi restò per quattro mesi, compiendo però almeno una missione in Inghilterra per conto della regina, che manteneva con lei una corrispondenza segreta. Per questo l’ipotesi tramontò. The marriage was arranged after it had been suggested by Louis XV as a suitable match, both the bride and the groom being members of a royal sideline, and it was accepted by her family because the King of Sardinia had long wished for an alliance between the House of Savoy and the Royal House of France: in the following years, further marriage alliances between France and Savoy would follow. [2] This procession was witnessed by a M. de Lamotte, who purchased a strand of her hair which he later gave to her father-in-law, as well as by the brother of Laure Junot. Quasi a simboleggiare la nuova difficile fase dei suoi rapporti con la regina, nel 1778 Maria Teresa dovette lasciare l’appartamento in cui viveva a Versailles, perché assegnato al duca d’Angoulême (1775-1844), figlio del conte d’Artois, allora erede presunto al trono. The night of the escape in June 1791, the queen said goodnight to her and advised her to spend some days in the country for the sake of her health before she retired; Lamballe found her behavior odd enough to remark about it to M. de Clermot, before leaving the Tuileries to retire to her villa in Passy. [2], During the Demonstration of 20 June 1792, she was present in the company of the queen when a mob broke into the palace. Nel 1775 Maria Antonietta conferì alla sua amica prediletta la prestigiosa e ben remunerata carica di Sovraintendente della Casa della Regina, che poneva la principessa al di sopra di tutte le dame del seguito della regina e comportava anche il compito non facile di organizzare i divertimenti della regina. According to a witness, Marie Louise de Lamballe stood leaning by the queen's armchair to support her through the entire scene:[7] "Madame de Lamballe displayed even greater courage. Nonostante il duca di Penthièvre le chiedesse di tornare a Parigi, per prendere il suo posto accanto alla regina, la principessa si decise al rientro solo dopo che il 14 ottobre 1791 ricevette una lettera della stessa Maria Antonietta. Fortunately, I had only favorable information to give, and she wrote down everything I told her. 26-35; S. Grant, Representations of the princesse de L. (1749-1792).

principessa di lamballe

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