It is notable for its quick response and its corresponding ability to produce a wide variety of articulations. Ons repertoire varieert van Renaissance tot Barok, van muziek die van oorspong vocaal is tot instrumentale muziek die voor blokfluit is geschreven, en tot kamermuziek die getransponeerd is voor blokfluit. Heinrich Oskar Schlosser (1875–1947) made instruments sold by the firm of Moeck in Celle and helped to design their Tuju series of recorders. Jacques Moderne's S'ensuyvent plusieurs basses dances tant communes que incommunes published in the 1530s, depicts a four-part recorder consort such as those described in Virdung, Agricola, Ganassi and others, however the dances are not marked for recorders. A recorder designed for German fingering has a hole five that is smaller than hole four, whereas baroque and neo-baroque recorders have a hole four that is smaller than hole five. In the fingering 0123, air leaks from the open holes 4,5,6, and 7. As an example of a more advanced form of coordination, a gradual increase in breath pressure combined with the shading of holes, when properly coordinated, results in an increase in volume and change in tone color without a change in pitch. 450 Hz. "Grafton Street" on Safe Trip Home); and Mannheim Steamroller; Ian Anderson (Jethro Tull). The pitch and volume of the recorder sound are influenced by the speed of the air travelling through the windway, which may be controlled by varying the breath pressure and the shape of the vocal tract. Our present knowledge of the structure of recorders in the Middle Ages is based on a small number of instruments preserved and artworks, or iconography, from the period. Our knowledge is based on documentary sources and surviving instruments. the steepness of the ramp) among other parameters.  Thus, the recorder cannot have been named after the sound of birds. The recorder was little used in art music of the Classical and Romantic periods. Sorry, er is een probleem opgetreden bij het opslaan van je cookievoorkeuren. We delen jouw creditcardgegevens niet met externe verkopers en we verkopen jouw gegevens niet aan anderen. Hector Berlioz may have intended "La fuite en Egypte" from L'enfance du Christ (1853) for the instrument. Also of note is the occasional use of notes outside the normal two octave compass of the recorder: the range of the solo sections is two octaves from notated F4 to notated F6, however there is a single notated C4 in the first movement of RV 444, a notated E4 in a tutti section in the first movement of RV 443 and low E4 in multiple tutti sections of RV 445. When modern music is written for 'Ganassi recorders' it means this type of recorder.. In most recorders, this is required for the playing of every note higher than a ninth above the lowest note.  He also adds that the position of the tongue, either extended or turned up towards the palate, can be used to improve, vary, and color notes. At the most basic level, the sequential uncovering of finger holes increases the sounding pitch of the instrument by decreasing the effective sounding length of the instrument, and vice versa for the sequential covering of holes. airjet, odd harmonics predominate in its sound (when the edge is decidedly off-center, an even distribution of harmonics occurs). The modification and renaming of recorders in the 18th century in order to prolong their use, and the uncertainty of the extent of the recorder's use the late 18th and early 19th centuries have fueled these debates. Starting in the early 1800s, a number of innovations to the flageolet were introduced, including the addition of keys to extend its range and allow it to more easily play accidentals. The next treatise comes from Venice: Silvestro Ganassi dal Fontego's (1492–mid-1500s) Opera Intitulata Fontegara (1535), which is the first work to focus specifically on the technique of playing the recorder, and perhaps the only historical treatise ever published that approaches a description of a professional or virtuoso playing technique. His fingering chart is notable for two reasons, first for describing fingerings with the 15th produced as a variant on the 14th, and for using the third finger of the lower hand as a buttress finger, although only for three notes in the lower octave. Thus, at the same air pressure, the fingering 01235 produces a pitch between 0123 and 01234. Musica getutscht (1511), and Martin Agricola's (1486–1556) similar Musica instrumentalis deudsch (1529), published in Basel and Saxony respectively. In continental Europe, the Denner family of Nuremberg were the most celebrated makers of this period. In the present day, cognates of the word "flute," when used without qualifiers, remain ambiguous and may refer to either the recorder, the modern concert flute, or other non-western flutes. Because of this, recorders are popular in schools, as they are one of the cheapest instruments to buy in bulk. In practice, however, the uncovering of the holes is not strictly sequential, and the half covering or uncovering of holes is an essential part of recorder technique. The three concertos RV 443, 444, and 445 are notated in C major, C major and A minor respectively. Both remained popular until the beginning of the 20th century. It was first described by Mersenne in Harmonie universelle (1636) as having four fingers on the front, and two thumb holes on the back, with lowest note C6 and a compass of two octaves. Many standard recorder fingerings are forked fingerings. For example, the fingering 0123 is not a forked fingering, while 0123 56 is a forked fingering because the open hole 4 has holes covered below it – holes 5 and 6. David Lasocki reports the earliest use of "recorder" in the household accounts of the Earl of Derby (later King Henry IV) in 1388, which register i. fistula nomine Recordour (one pipe called 'Recordour'). Instruments marked "HIER S•" or "HIE•S" are in stacked fifths from great bass in F2 to soprano in E5. , At the turn of the 17th century, playwright William Shakespeare famously referenced the recorder in his most substantial play, "The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark," creating an extended metaphor between manipulation and playing a musical instrument. A recorder's pitch is also affected by the partial covering of holes. Groups of different sized instruments help to compensate for the limited note range of the individual instruments. The other pitches are harmonics, or overtones. In modern usage, recorders not in C or F are alternatively referred to using the name of the closest instrument in C or F, followed by the lowest note. While he was responsible for broadening interest in the United Kingdom beyond the small group of early music specialists, Dolmetsch was not solely responsible for the recorder's broader revival. Michel notes that this transposition allows for the use of the violins' and viola's lowest strings (in sections where they provide the accompaniment without bass) and the lowest two notes of the 'cello. Surviving instruments from the Middle Ages are heterogeneous. During the baroque period, the recorder was traditionally associated with pastoral scenes, miraculous events, funerals, marriages, and amorous scenes. To partially uncover a covered hole, the player may slide the finger off the hole, bend or roll the finger away from the hole, gently lift the finger from the hole, or a combination of these. Especially notable is Fred Morgan's much copied "Ganassi" model, based loosely on an instrument in the Vienna Kunsthistorisches museum (inventory number SAM 135), was designed to use the fingerings for the highest notes in Ganassi's tables in Fontegara. Marvin has designed a flauto doppio based on the Oxford instrument, scaled to play at F4 and C5. When a topic become too complex for Virdung to discuss briefly, he refers the reader to his lost larger work, an unhelpful practice for modern readers. A recorder can be distinguished from other duct flutes by the presence of a thumb-hole for the upper hand and seven finger-holes: three for the upper hand and four for the lower. One essential use of partial covering is in "leaking," or partially covering, the thumb hole to destabilize low harmonics. We doen er alles aan om jouw veiligheid en privacy te beschermen. Rare sizes and notations include the garklein, which may be notated two octaves below its sounding pitch, and the sub-contrabass, which may be notated an octave above its sounding pitch. , The earliest instruments were shaped like a walking stick with a mouthpiece in the handle and had no keys, although they could eventually have up to thirteen keys, along with a tuning slide and a device for narrowing the thumb hole. The perceived pitch is the lowest, and typically loudest, mode of vibration in the air column. Keys are sometimes also used on smaller recorders to allow for comfortable hand stretch, and acoustically improved hole placement and size. Forked fingerings have a different harmonic profile from non-forked fingerings, and are generally regarded as having a weaker sound. Virdung depicts four recorders together: a "baßcontra" or "bassus" (basset) in F3 with an anchor shaped key and a perforated fontanelle, two tenors in C4 and a "discantus" (alto) in G4. The desired instrument for the fiauti d'echo parts in BWV 1049 has been a matter of perennial musicological and organological debate for two primary reasons: first, the term fiauto d'echo is not mentioned in dictionaries or tutors of the period; and second, the first fiauto part uses F#6, a note which is difficult to produce on a Baroque alto recorder in F4. Groups of recorder players or recorder playing angels, particularly trios, are depicted in paintings from the 15th century, indicating the recorder was used in these configurations, as well as with other instruments. The earliest surviving recorders of this type were made by the Rafi family, instrument makers active in Lyons in Southern France in the early 16th century. As in the instrument's earliest history, questions of the instrument's quiddity are at the forefront of modern debate. Feedback from the resonance of the tube regulates the pitch of the sound. Forked fingerings allow recorder players to obtain fine gradations in pitch and timbre. In the fingering 01234567, only the bell of the instrument is open, resulting in a low pressure node at the bell end of the instrument. As a result, he has suggested that these flutes should be described as improved flageolets, and has proposed the condition that true recorders produce a tone (rather than a semitone) when the seventh finger is lifted.. The table in this section shows the standard names of modern recorders in F and C and their respective ranges. Winfried Michel was first to argue in favor of the soprano recorder in 1983, when he proposed to take Vivaldi at his word and transpose the string parts down a fourth and play the flautino part on a soprano recorder in C5 (also "fifth-flute") using the English practice of notating such flutes as transposing instruments using the fingerings of an alto recorder. As conventions and instruments vary, especially for larger and more uncommon instruments, it is often practical to state the recorder's lowest note along with its name to avoid confusion. The Syntagma musicum (1614–20) of Michael Praetorius (1571–1621) in three volumes (a fourth was intended but never finished) is an encyclopedic survey of music and musical instruments. Much of the vocal music of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries can be played on recorder consorts, and as illustrated in treatises from Virdung to Praetorius, the choice appropriate instruments and transpositions to play vocal music was common practice in the Renaissance.  It was not until the Baroque period, when instruments with adjustable footjoints were developed, that widely spaced double holes became obsolete. In the second movement, breaking of beaming in the fiauto parts, markings of f and p, the fermata over the final double bar of the first movement, and the 21 bars of rest at the beginning of the third have led some musicologists to argue that Bach intended the use of "echo flutes" distinct from normal recorders in the second movement in particular. [clarification needed], The earliest known document mentioning "a pipe called Recordour" dates from 1388. They also included novel solutions to the problem of condensation: most commonly, a sea sponge was placed inside the wind chamber (the conical chamber above the windway) to soak up moisture, while novel solutions such as the insertion of a thin wooden wedge into the windway, the drilling of little holes in the side of the block to drain condensation and a complex system for draining condensation through a hollowed out block developed, were also developed. These several hundred divisions use quintuplets, septuplets, note values from whole notes to 32nd notes in modern notation, and demonstrate immense variety and complexity. Loulié is unclear on why one would need two echo flutes to play strongly and weakly, and on why it is that echo flutes differ. These parts would be written using chiavi naturali, allowing the parts to roughly fit in the range of a single staff, and also in the range of the recorders of the period. From at least this time to the present, the flageolet in its first form has been called the French flageolet to differentiate it from the so-called English flageolet.. A forked fingering is a fingering in which an open hole has covered holes below it: fingerings for which the uncovering of the holes is not sequential. ), The instrument name "recorder" derives from the Latin recordārī (to call to mind, remember, recollect), by way of Middle French recorder (before 1349; to remember, to learn by heart, repeat, relate, recite, play music) and its derivative MFr recordeur (c.1395; one who retells, a minstrel). A recent innovation is the use of synthetic ceramics in the manufacture of recorder blocks. Nonetheless, the recorder was considered primarily an instrument of historical interest. It is fruitwood in one piece with turnings, measuring about 256 mm (10.1 in) long. Some music probably intended for this group survives, including dance music by Augustine and Geronimo Bassano from the third quarter of the 16th century, and the more elaborate fantasias of Jeronimo Bassano (c. 1580), four in five parts and one in six parts. Arnold Dolmetsch, the first to achieve commercial production in the 20th century, began to build recorders in 1919. Er zijn nog een paar leden uit de vroegste beginperiode, zoals Cor en Marianne (beiden alt) en Rinus en Wil (beiden tenor). Until the mid 18th century, musical scores written in Italian refer to the instrument as flauto, whereas the transverse instrument was called flauto traverso. Most wind bands consisted of players playing sackbutts, shawms, and other loud instruments doubling on recorder. Since the 15th century, a variety of sizes of recorder have been documented, but a consistent terminology and notation for the different sizes was not formulated until the 20th century. In the 16th century, the recorder saw important developments in its structure. The instrument has tenons on both ends of the instrument, suggesting the presence of now lost ferrules or turnings.  This section first discusses repertoire marked for the recorder, then briefly, other repertoire played on recorder. On an elementary level, breath pressure and fingerings must accord with each other to provide an in-tune pitch. Around 1800, it was highly fashionable for make walking sticks with additional functions (e.g., umbrellas, swords, flutes, oboes, clarinets, horns) although the csakan was the most popular of these, and the only one that became a musical instrument in its own right. Alternatively, in rare cases instruments may be equipped with a key designed to cover the bell ("bell key"), operated by one of the fingers, typically the pinky finger of the upper hand, which is not normally used to cover a hole.  Surviving consorts of this type, identified by their makers marks, include those marked "HIER S•" or "HIE•S" found in Vienna, Sibiu and Verona; and those marked with variations on a rabbit's footprint, designated "!!" Larger recorders may have a thumbrest, or a neckstrap for extra support, and may use a bocal to direct air from the player's mouth to the windway. Their sound is warm, rich in harmonics, and somewhat introverted. Their range is more suitable for the performance of vocal music, rather than purely instrumental music. Like Virdung, Agricola takes it for granted that recorders should be played in four-part consorts. He also shows the different "registers" of consort possible, 2′ (discant, alt, and tenor), 4′ (alt, tenor, and basset), and 8′ (tenor, basset, and bass) (see also Nomenclature). The breaking of beaming could be an indication of changes in register or tonal quality, the rests introduced to allow the players time to change instruments, and the markings of f and p further indicative of register or sound changes. The evolution of the Renaissance recorder into the Baroque instrument is generally attributed to the Hotteterre family, in France. Composers such as Bach, Telemann and Vivaldi exploit this property in their concertos for the instrument. There is also evidence of double recorders tuned in thirds, but these are not candidates for the fiauto parts in BWV 1049. In normal play, articulated attacks should align with the proper fingering, even in legato passages or in difficult finger transitions and the fingers move in the brief silence between the notes (silence d'articulation) created by the stoppage of the air by the tongue. No complete instruments larger than 300 mm (12 in) have survived, although the Esslingen fragment may represent a larger recorder.. Dit is een professionele groep waar Marco Magãlhaes in speelt, onze zeer gewaardeerde begeleider. Both fingers and the breath can be used to control the pitch of the recorder. As a result, it was frequently the performers' responsibility to read parts not specifically intended for the instrument and to choose appropriate instruments. Most of the treatise consists of tables of diminutions of intervals, small melodies and cadences, categorized by their meter. Vingt et sept chansons is the first published music marked for a recorder consort.  Because there are no Unicode values for complete recorder fingering charts, these fonts are custom encoded. Composers who have written for the recorder include Monteverdi, Lully, Purcell, Handel, Vivaldi, Telemann, Johann Sebastian Bach, Paul Hindemith, Benjamin Britten, Michael Tippett, Leonard Bernstein, Luciano Berio, and Arvo Pärt. Well known makers of the csakan included Johann Ziegler and Stephan Koch in Vienna, and Franz Schöllnast in Pressburg. Initially as a result of this, and later as a result of the development of a Dutch school of recorder playing led by Kees Otten, the recorder was introduced to serious musicians as a virtuoso solo instrument both in Britain and in northern Europe. The introduction of the Baroque recorder to England by a group of French professionals in 1673 popularized the French name for the instrument, "flute douce", or simply "flute", a name previously reserved for the transverse instrument. The recorders' internal and external proportions vary, but the bore is generally reverse conical (i.e. As Morgan knew, these notes were not in standard use; indeed Ganassi uses them in only a few of the hundreds of diminutions contained in Fontegara.  Support for this view rests on the organological classification of some 19th century duct flutes as recorders. Notably, Georg Philipp Telemann's concerto TWV 51:F1 makes use some of these notes in the third octave, posing significant technical challenges to the player, perhaps requiring the covering of the bell or other unusual techniques. Nearly twice as many pieces have been written for the recorder since its modern revival as were written in all previous epochs. A practice documented in many historical fingering charts is the use of finger seven or eight to support the recorder when playing notes for which the coverage of this hole negligibly affects the sounding pitch (e.g. The use of the tongue to stop and start the air is called "articulation". We gebruiken cookies en vergelijkbare tools om uw winkelervaring te verbeteren, onze services aan te bieden, te begrijpen hoe klanten onze services gebruiken zodat we verbeteringen kunnen aanbrengen, en om advertenties weer te geven. In Germanic countries, the equivalent of the same term, Quartflöte, was applied both to the tenor in C4, the interval being measured down from the alto in F4, and to a recorder in C5 (soprano), the interval of a fourth apparently being measured up from an alto in G4. , The English members of the Bassano family, having originated in Venice, were also probably familiar with the vocal style, advanced technique, and complex improvised ornamentation described in Ganassi's Fontegara, and they were probably among the recorder players who Ganassi reports having worked and studied with: when they were brought to England, they were regarded as some of the best wind players in Venice.  In 17th-century England, smaller recorders were named for their relationship to the alto and notated as transposing instruments with respect to it: third flute (A4), fifth flute (soprano; C5), sixth flute (D5), and octave flute (sopranino; F5). Common features of the surviving instruments include: a narrow cylindrical bore (except the Göttingen recorder); a doubled seventh hole for the little finger of the lower hand to allow for right- or left- handed playing (except the Tartu recorder); a seventh hole that produces a semitone instead of a tone; and a flat or truncated head, instead of the narrow beak found on later instruments. , Starting in the Middle Ages, angels have frequently been depicted playing one or more recorders, often grouped around the Virgin, and in several notable paintings trios of angels play recorders. As the area was not disturbed until the modern excavation, the recorder has been dated to the period of occupation of the castle. This is perhaps a sign of the trinity, although the music must have often been in three parts.. Vivaldi wrote three concertos for the flautino, possibly for performance by students at the Ospedale della Pietà in Venice, where he taught and composed in the early 18th century. Perhaps the echo flute was composed in two halves: one which plays strongly, the other weakly? , By the 15th century, the name had appeared in English literature. Recorder voicing is determined by physical parameters such as the proportions and curvature of the windway along both the longitudinal and latitudinal axes, the beveled edges (chamfers) of the windway facing towards the labium, the length of the window, the sharpness of the labium (i.e. He is the first to differentiate between the amount of the breath (full, shallow, or moderate) and the force (relaxed or slow, intense, and the median between them) as well as the different amount of air required for each instrument, and describes a trill or vibrato called a vox tremula in which "a tremulous quality in the breath" is combined with a trilling of the fingers to vary the interval from anything between a major third and a diesis.