Nella mitologia classica vi sono comunque altre coppie di guerrieri che volentieri affrontano il pericolo e finanche la morte l'uno stretto accanto all'altro, come Eurialo e Niso (Virgilio, Eneide, V e IX), Oreste e Pilade (Eschilo, Orestea), Ati e Licabas (Ovidio, Metamorfosi, V): in particolare Ati e Achille sono semidei, nati ambedue da ninfe. Aristarchus’ view, of course, is paradoxical: even a Greek who wanted to rule out an amorous interpretation of the men’s relationship thought these lines argued against such a view.», "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities", Same–Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, Achilles: Paradigms of the War Hero from Homer to the Middle Ages, Before Sexuality: The Construction of Erotic Experience in the Ancient Greek World, Omosessualità militare nella Grecia antica, Storia dell'omosessualità nel mondo antico, https://it.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Achille_e_Patroclo&oldid=115511841, Voci con modulo citazione e parametro pagina, Voci con modulo citazione e parametro pagine, licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo. In the Oxford Classical Dictionary, David M. Halperin writes, Homer, to be sure, does not portray Achilles and Patroclus as lovers (although some Classical Athenians thought he implied as much (Aeschylus fragments 135, 136 Radt; Plato Symposium 179e–180b; Aeschines Against Timarchus 133, 141–50) ), but he also did little to rule out such an interpretation.[7]. Alcuni versi di Licofrone di Alessandria d'Egitto, autore del III secolo, sembrano indicare qual movente dell'uccisione di Troilo da parte di Achille, proprio un amore non corrisposto. Shay places a strong emphasis on the relationships that soldiers who experience combat together forge, and points out that this kind of loss has in fact often led to "berserking" of soldiers stunned with grief and rage, in a way similar to the raging of Achilles in the Iliad. Autore Il suo scopo era screditarlo e privarlo dei diritti civili, pena riservata Further evidence of this debate is found in a speech by an Athenian politician, Aeschines, at his trial in 345 BC. Post-classical and modern interpretations, W. M. Clarke, "Achilles and Patroclus in Love," in, William Armstrong Percy III, "Reconsiderations about Greek Homosexualities," in. [16] Notably, in Xenophon's Symposium, the host Kallias and the young pankration victor Autolycos are called erastes and eromenos. [9] Its ideal structure consisted of an older erastes (lover, protector), and a younger eromenos (the beloved). He returns to battle with the sole aim of avenging Patroclus’ death by killing Hector, despite a warning that doing so would cost him his life. Aristarchus of Samothrace, who has been called “the founder of scientific scholarship,” believed Homer did not intend to present Achilles and Patroclus as lovers. In Athens, the relationship was often viewed as being loving and pederastic. [15][16] Instead, Phaedrus suggests that Achilles is the eromenos whose reverence of his erastes, Patroclus, was so great that he would be willing to die to avenge him.[16]. 1 Items in the Collection Achille e Patroclo. A futuristic version of Patroclus appears in the 1997 science fiction story The Masque of Agamemnon by Sean Williams and Simon Brown. Ciononostante, il rapporto tra Achille e Patroclo rappresenta uno dei nodi principali all'interno della stessa trama dell'Iliade: è la morte di Patroclo, vestito con le armi del semidio, l'unico evento capace di smuovere Achille che, sin dall'inizio del poema, era irato per il furto della schiava Briseide e aveva deciso di non combattere per gli Achei Eppure Achille sa anche piangere infatti lo fa per Patroclo e ciò evidenzia la … The collection Achille e Patroclo represents a specific aggregation or gathering of resources found in Internet Archive - Open Library. 1 Leben 2 Beziehung zwischen Achilles und Patroklos 3 Rezeption [10] Writers that assumed a pederastic relationship between Achilles and Patroclus, such as Plato and Aeschylus, were then faced with a problem of deciding who must be older and play the role of the erastes. The film Troy presented Patroclus as a younger relative of Achilles, without any romantic or sexual aspects. A version of Achilles in DC Comics depicts a modern-day resurrected Achilles as Wonder Woman's male counterpart, who is gay. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1993, p. 6. Platone presenta attorno al 385 a.C. i due come amanti nel Simposio: il giovane Fedro li indica qual esempio di amanti divinamente approvati. Interpretazione classica del mito come relazione pederastica, Il linguaggio dei lamenti di Achille sarà molto simile a quello usato poi da, anche se questi ruoli risultano a ben vedere anacronistici ed invertiti, così come è invertito il rapporto d'età, «Serious attempts to edit Homer’s text in a scholarly fashion were made in Alexandria in the second century bce. Achille a Sciro). While its feminine form (hetaîra) would be used for courtesans, a hetaîros was still a form of soldier in Hellenistic and Byzantine times. Achilles and Patroclus are close comrades in the fight against the Trojans. He later forms a relationship with Patroclus' reincarnation, Patrick Cleese. Achilles publicly laments Patroclus’ death, addressing the corpse and criticizing him for letting himself be killed. ὃ δέ τ' ἄχνυται ὕστερος ἐλθών», «e Achille tra loro diede inizio al compianto,mettendo le mani sterminatrici sul petto del suo compagno,e gemendo sempre, come un leone dalla bella crinieraal quale un cacciatore ha rapito i cucciolinella selva fitta, e lui si angoscia d'esser giunto tardi». He laments Patroclus’ death using language very similar to that later used by Andromache of Hector. David Halperin nel suo saggio intitolato Gli eroi e i loro amici mette a confronto le tradizioni di Gilgamesh con Enkidu e Davide con Gionatan, le quali son quasi contemporanee alla composizione dell'Iliade e sostiene che mentre nessuno di questi tre rapporti sia indicato come esplicitamente sessuale all'interno del contesto letterario e sociale in cui si sono venute a creare, tutte d'altra parte dimostrano inequivocabilmente quanto intensamente omoerotiche fossero le amicizie guerriere tra maschi[12]. In Ilium, by Dan Simmons, Achilles and Patroclus share a close "brothers in war" type bond, but are also shown to engage in group sex, each with a woman and possibly each other. Per tutto il periodo ellenistico e poi durante l'impero romano Achille e Patroclo vengono presentati come amanti[10]. Torna a combattere, anche se gli Dèi lo avevano ben preavvertito che ciò gli sarebbe costato a sua volta la vita. Shay points out that a frequent topos in veterans' grief for a companion is that companion's gentleness or innocence; similarly, while a warrior of great note, Patroclus is said in the Iliad by other soldiers and by Briseis the captive to have been gentle and kind. David Malouf's novel, Ransom (2009), is a reconsideration of the Iliad, and among others, depicts the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus as intense and intimate. Sergent asserts that ritualized man-boy relations were widely diffused through Europe from prehistoric times. Nella tragedia perduta di Eschilo Mirmidoni il poeta indica la relazione tra i due eroi come esplicitamente sessuale ed assegna ad Achille il titolo di erastes e protettore: in un frammento superstite l'eroe parla di una "unione devota delle cosce"[4] indicando il sesso intercrurale, quello utilizzato maggiormente nelle relazioni pederastiche. Achille e Patroclo, by Elena Visentin Eschine - Contro Timarco Finalità dell' opera Eschine chiamò in tribunale il noto politico Timarco, accusandolo di dedicarsi fin dall' adolescenza alla prostituzione, come strategia autodifensiva. Eschine nel 345 a.C. nel porre l'accento sull'importanza della pederastia greca sostiene che, anche se Omero non lo indica esplicitamente, le persone colte dovrebbero esser in grado di leggere tra le righe: «si nasconde il loro amore e si evita di dare un nome alla loro amicizia, pensando che la straordinaria grandezza del loro affetto si manifesta per quello che realmente è agli ascoltatori più sapienti»[5]. [8] The Greek custom of paiderasteia between members of the same-sex, typically men, was a political, intellectual, and sometimes sexual relationship. Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Madeline Miller's The Song of Achilles (2011) is a coming-of-age story told from Patroclus' point of view, showing the development of a loving and sexual relationship between Achilles and Patroclus.[26]. Due to his anger at being dishonored by Agamemnon, Achilles chooses not to participate in the battle. In the Iliad, Homer describes a deep and meaningful relationship between Achilles and Patroclus, where Achilles is tender toward Patroclus but callous and arrogant toward others. Gli scrittori medioevali cristiani hanno deliberatamente soppresso le sfumature omoerotiche della storia[11]. [citation needed], Attempts to edit Homer's text were undertaken by Aristarchus of Samothrace in Alexandria around 200 BC. After defeating Hector, Achilles drags his corpse by the heels behind his chariot. Homer never explicitly casts the two as lovers[1][2] but they were depicted as lovers in the archaic and classical periods of Greek literature, particularly in the works of Aeschylus, Aeschines and Plato.[3][4]. As a rule, the post-classical tradition shows Achilles as heterosexual and having an exemplary platonic friendship with Patroclus. Hetaîros meant companion or comrade; in Homer it is usually used of soldiers under the same commander. The joint tomb and Alexander's action demonstrates the perceived significance of the Achilles-Patroclus relationship at that time (around 334 BC). Emily Hauser's "For the Most Beautiful" touches upon the relationship between Achilles and Patroclus. Nel romanzo di Christa Wolf intitolato Cassandra Achille è presentato come un maschio omosessuale che si trova ad essere in un certo qual modo in conflitto con sé stesso. She writes of Achilles, "He also knows the body of his cousin Patroclus." Since, however, he thought the “we-two alone” passage did imply a love relation, he argued that it must be a later interpolation. [19][20], Commentators from the Classical period on have interpreted the relationship through the lens of their own cultures. "[10] Most ancient writers (among the most influential Aeschylus, Plutarch, Theocritus, Martial and Lucian)[4] followed the thinking laid out by Aeschines. David Halperin compares Achilles and Patroclus to the traditions of Jonathan and David, and Gilgamesh and Enkidu, which are approximately contemporary with the Iliad's composition. L'azione compiuta da Alessandro dimostra poi l'importanza percepita al tempo del rapporto esistente tra i due eroi[6][7]. Durante il V e il IV secolo a.C. la relazione tra Achille e Patroclo è stata ritratta sempre più come un rapporto pederastico tra eromenos ed erastès (questo ce lo dice Eschilo nella sua trilogia dedicata ad Achille e pervenutaci frammentata), anche se questi ruoli risultano a ben vedere anacronistici ed invertiti, così come è invertito il rapporto d'età[senza fonte]: Achille, il più giovane, risulta dominante avendo maggior fama di guerriero (questo fa sostenere Platone a Fedro nel Simposio); mentre Patroclo, il più adulto, svolge ruoli di servizio come occuparsi della cucina o prendersi cura dei cavalli. He also requests that when he dies, his ashes be mixed with Patroclus'. Aeschines, in placing an emphasis on the importance of paiderasteia to the Greeks, argues that though Homer does not state it explicitly, educated people should be able to read between the lines: "Although (Homer) speaks in many places of Patroclus and Achilles, he hides their love and avoids giving a name to their friendship, thinking that the exceeding greatness of their affection is manifest to such of his hearers as are educated men. The earlier steadfast and unbreakable Achilles agonizes, touching Patroclus’ dead body, smearing himself with ash and fasting. Achilles' strongest interpersonal bond is with Patroclus, whom he loves dearly. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 14 set 2020 alle 12:28. However, he did agree that the "we-two alone" passage did imply a love relation and argued it was a later interpolation. Nel musical Spring Awakening ad un certo punto un ragazzo implora un altro di fare un po' di Achille e Patroclo: i due personaggi sono poi mostrati impegnarsi in una relazione omosessuale. Elizabeth Cook's 2001 verse novel, Achilles, is not sexually explicit, but a romantic relationship can be inferred. Phaedrus argues that Aeschylus erred in claiming Achilles was the erastes because Achilles was more beautiful and youthful than Patroclus (characteristics of the eromenos) as well as more noble and skilled in battle (characteristics of the erastes). [17] However, Sergent and others have argued that it had, though it was not reflected in Homer. Embed this data in a secure (HTTPS) page: http://link.archive.org/resource/tYGbD7LwkiQ/, http://library.link/resource/tYGbD7LwkiQ/, http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#, Creative The age difference between partners and their respective roles (either active or passive) was considered to be a key feature. This can explain the overtones in Book 19 of the Iliad wherein Achilles mourns Patroclus (lines 315–337) in a similar manner used previously by Briseis (lines 287–300).[8]. Il film Troy presenta Patroclo come un parente più giovane di Achille, deprivando la storia d'un qualsiasi aspetto romantico o sessuale; laddove invece Omero afferma chiaramente che Patroclo era il più grande di età tra i due, oltre ad esser quello col carattere più responsabile. Achilles' attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Alexander the Great and Hephaestion who made symbolic public references to Achilles and Patroclus, Damon and Pythias, Orestes and Pylades, Harmodius and Aristogeiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other.[6]. He argues that while a modern reader is inclined to interpret the portrayal of these intense same-sex male warrior friendships as being fundamentally homoerotic, it is important to consider the greater themes of these relationships: The thematic insistence on mutuality and the merging of individual identities, although it may invoke in the minds of modern readers the formulas of heterosexual romantic love […] in fact situates avowals of reciprocal love between male friends in an honorable, even glamorous tradition of heroic comradeship: precisely by banishing any hint of subordination on the part of one friend to the other, and thus any suggestion of hierarchy, the emphasis on the fusion of two souls into one actually distances such a love from erotic passion. Patroclus is briefly mentioned as the sole man who could get Achilles to feel truly passionate about defeating Troy, and upon his death Achilles butchered several Troy captives — including two royal children — as a sacrifice. [14], In Plato’s Symposium, written c. 385 BC, the speaker Phaedrus holds up Achilles and Patroclus as an example of divinely approved lovers. In ancient texts, philos denoted a general type of love, used for love between family, between friends, a desire or enjoyment of an activity, as well as between lovers. [23] Achilles' decision to spend his days in his tent with Patroclus is seen by Ulysses and many other Greeks as the chief reason for anxiety about Troy.[24]. In a surviving fragment of the play, Achilles speaks of “the reverent company” of Patroclus’ thighs and how Patroclus was “ungrateful for many kisses.”[12][13], Pindar's comparison of the adolescent boxer Hagesidamus and his trainer Ilas to Patroclus and Achilles in Olympian 10.16-21 (476 BC) as well as the comparison of Hagesidamus to Zeus' lover Ganymede in Olympian 10.99-105 suggest that student and trainer had a romantic relationship, especially after Aeschylus' depiction of Achilles and Patroclus as lovers in his play Myrmidons. In the 5th and 4th centuries BC, the relationship was portrayed as same-sex love in the works of Aeschylus, Plato, Pindar and Aeschines. [senza fonte] Teti ha difatti spinto il figlio a tornare sul campo di battaglia e qui egli, con l'unico scopo di vendicare Patroclo, si aggira assetato di sangue alla ricerca del suo assassino: Ettore comprende molto presto di non aver alcuna possibilità di sopravvivere allo scontro con l'eroe furente. Homosexuality in the militaries of ancient Greece, "Aeschines, Against Timarchus, section 133", "Examining Greek Pederastic Relationships", "How to do the history of male homosexuality", "The Song of Achilles by Madeline Miller – review", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Achilles_and_Patroclus&oldid=982037729, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 October 2020, at 20:49. Achilles' attachment to Patroclus is an archetypal male bond that occurs elsewhere in Greek culture: Alexander the Great and Hephaestion who made symbolic public references to Achilles and Patroclus, Damon and Pythias, Orestes and Pylades, Harmodius and Aristogeiton are pairs of comrades who gladly face danger and death for and beside each other. William Shakespeare in Troilo e Cressida raffigura i due eroi come amanti, con la decisione di Achille di trascorrere tutto il tempo all'interno della tenda dell'amico. Quando Alessandro Magno giunse sulla piana di Troia assieme al suo amante Efestione nel 334 a.C., all'inizio della grande campagna asiatica che li avrebbe portati di lì a poco fino ai confini del mondo conosciuto, l'India, andarono ad onorare il sacro tumulo innalzato a perenne memoria di Achille e Patroclo: questo di fronte a tutto l'esercito schierato, e dunque si trattò di un'esplicita dichiarazione sulla natura del loro legame. In Christa Wolf's novel Cassandra, Achilles is depicted as a somewhat conflicted homosexual male, one who would go after both a young man, whom he actually desired, and a young woman, to prove he was like everyone else. Achilles calls Patroclus the only one he ever loved and Patroclus is depicted as jealous of Achilles' relationship to Briseis. Patroclus succeeds in beating back the Trojan forces, but is killed in battle by Hector. In molti tra i romanzi storici dell'autrice britannica Mary Renault sono contenuti frequenti riferimenti simbolici ad Achille e Patroclo: la coppia per lei rappresenta un modello di amore pederastico senza alcuna implicazione di effeminatezza, bensì un ideale amore cameratesco omosessuale. The musical Spring Awakening, includes an offhand reference where one boy, Hanschen, entreats another, Ernst to 'do a little Achilles and Patroclus'. Achilles is the most dominant, and among the warriors in the Trojan War he has the most fame.

achille e patroclo

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